OPERATIONS

INTRODUCTION

The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has been involved in peacekeeping since 1947 when four Australians (the world’s first United Nations peacekeepers) were deployed to the first UN peacekeeping mission – the United Nations Good Offices Commission to Indonesia (UNGOC).

Since UNGOC, the ADF has been extensively involved in both UN & multinational peacekeeping and peacemaking operations. The tempo of these missions has notably increased since the first large deployment of Engineer Troops to South West Africa in 1989.

INTERFET in 1999 / 2000 was the largest deployment of Australian Troops since the Second World War and since September 11, 2001 thousands of ADF personnel have been deployed in International Campaigns against Terrorism operating in the Middle East, Afghanistan and South West Asia. 

Australian Services personnel continue to demonstrate outstanding capabilities in these often dangerous and hostile foreign environments. 

DEFINITIONS

Operations and Missions are classified as Warlike, Non-warlike or Peacetime.
The definitions for these classifications are explained on the Defence Pay and Conditions Manual (PACMAN) located here:
Department of Defence website.

OPERATIONS

Listed by the year in which Australia committed forces / personnel:

1948 - 1990
UNITED NATIONS GOOD OFFICES COMMISSION (UNGOC) IN DUTCH EAST INDIES
& UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION FOR INDONESIA (UNCI)

 

 

Australian Deployment Dates: 1 August 1947 to 1 January 1949 (UNGOC). 1 January 1949 to 30 April 1951 (UNCI)

Strength: Approximately 45 ADF personnel (Total).

Area of Operations (AO): Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)

Purpose: UNGOC was the first UN peacekeeping mission in which Australia was involved. The mission was established in 1947 as the Good Offices Commission (GOC). At the end of World War II, the Dutch sought to re-establish their rule in the then Netherlands East Indies but were resisted by the newly established Indonesian republic. Australia became involved in the mission in August 1947 when locally based diplomatic staff were seconded to the GOC to assist in the delineation and supervision of the ceasefire and repatriation of Dutch forces to the Netherlands. Later in August, four more Australians joined the mission as military observers and the commitment increased to 15 when the GOC became UNCI in 1949. The Australian force was withdrawn in April 1951. 

Comments: Australian Army Brigadier L.G.H Dyke, RAN Officer Commander H.S. Chesterman, Army Major D.L. Campbell, and RAAF Officer Squadron Leader D.T. Spence, DFC are noted as the first Australians and the world’s first ever UN peacekeepers to deploy into the field under the auspices of UNGOC. 

Repatriated: SQNLDR D.T. Spence, DFC – Illness (Later KIA in Korea). 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 1 August 1947 to 1 January 1949 (UNGOC). 1 January 1949 to 30 April 1951 (UNCI). 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • The Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘INDONESIA’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S274 of 18 Jul 96
  • The United Nations Special Service Medal with Clasp ‘UNCI’ or ‘UNGOC’. Force assigned – 90 days.
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

UN Special Services Medal

UN Special Services Medal

UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVER GROUP INDIA & PAKISTAN (UNMOGIP) 
Australian Deployment Dates: 13 August 1948 to 1985. 

Strength: Approx 280 ADF personnel including, 96 RAAF personnel with the UNMOGIP Air Unit with an RAAF DHC-4 Caribou (1975 – 79) provided from 38 Squadron. 

Area of Operations (AO): India, Pakistan and Kashmir. 

Purpose: To supervise the first ceasefire between India and Pakistan in Kashmir, and has remained in place ever since, as Kashmir remains ‘territory in dispute’ under international law. Australia provided 6 man Observer teams serving one or two year tours of duty. During the Vietnam War, Army reservists were used to man the contingent, as the army’s resources were stretched fighting in the Vietnam War. 

Comments: Of note, the first and longest serving commander of UNMOGIP was Australian Major General (later Lieutenant General), R.H. Nimmo CBE, who was appointed the Chief Military Observer (CMO) UNMOGIP in October 1950, and he remained in command until his death on 4 January 1966. His 15 year command is a UN record and one unlikely to ever be broken. 

In March 1975 to January 1979, an RAAF DHC-4 Caribou from the 38th Squadron, comprising 12 men, conducted operations in support of UNMOGIP on 6-month rotations. 

In 1985 the contingent was withdrawn because the government considered Australia was overcommitted to the UN at that time.

Died: (1) LTGEN R.H. Nimmo, CBE – CMO (Heart Attack). 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 13 August 1948 to 1985. 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘KASHMIR’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 274 dated 18 Jul 96
  • Australian Service Medal (1975-Present) with Clasp ‘KASHMIR’. Posted – 90 days; Visitor / TDY – 90 days.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: GN323 dated 21 May 1990
  • UNMOGIP Medal. Force assigned – 6 months.
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp ‘S. PACIFIC 2006’

UNMOGIP Medal

UNMOGIP Medal

UNMOGIP

UNMOGIP

UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON KOREA (UNCOK)
  • Australian Deployment Dates: 9 June 1950 to 23 June 1950 

    Strength: 2 

    Area of Operations (AO): South Korea. 

    Purpose: UNCOK was originally established in 1948 as a diplomatic mission to monitor the withdrawal of WWII occupation forces from Korea, and provide UN good offices for unification of the two regimes fostered by the USA and USSR as occupying powers. In May 1950, war loomed on the still divided Korean peninsula and military observers to undertake monitoring activities in the field supplemented UNCOK. 

    Comments: By the eve of hostilities, only two Australian Observers, Major F.S.B Peach and Squadron Leader R.J. Rankin, were on the ground in Korea. Whilst it was Australia’s smallest peacekeeping contingent, it was one of the most important since they were the only UNCOK observers in place when North Korea invaded South Korea in late June 1950. Their thorough report proved that North Korea had initiated hostilities and provided the evidence needed for the UN to intervene in South Korea. 

    Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 9 June 1950 to 23 June 1950.

    Service Type: Non-warlike.

    Awards & Qualifying Periods:
    • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945 – 1975) with Clasp ‘KOREA’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
    .
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

 
   
UNITED NATIONS COMMAND – KOREA (UNC- K)


Australian Deployment Dates: 1 July 1950 to 19 April 1956 

Strength: Approximately 17,000. Deployment included one Aircraft Carrier (HMAS Sydney), two destroyers, two Infantry Battalions with supporting arms and services, and a RAAF Fighter Squadron with supporting services. 

Area of Operations (AO): Korea and in some cases Japan. 

Purpose: UNC-K was the UN’s first peace restoration (peacemaking) operation. The operation was in response to the North Korean invasion of South Korea in an attempt to force re-unification of the peninsula. An armistice was concluded in 1953. 

Comments: Australia’s largest combined service operation since the Second World War. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 2; 1 July 1950 to 27 July 1953. Schedule 3; 28 July 1953 to 26 Aug 1957. 

Service Type: Warlike (1 July 1950 to 27 July 1953) and Non-warlike (28 July 1953 – 26 August 1957). 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘KOREA’ (1 July 1950 to 27 July 1953). Posted – 1 day; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 54 dated 10 February 1998
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘KOREA’ (28 July 1953 – 26 August 1957). Posted – 30 days; Vistor / TDY – N/A.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
  • British Commonwealth Korea War Medal. 1 July 1950 to 27 July 1953. Posted – 1 day; Visitor / TDY – 30 days. Service excluded – Anywhere outside Korea or Korean waters.
  • United Nations Medal with Clasp ‘KOREA’. 27 June 1950 to 27 July 1953. UN force assigned – 1 Day; Non UN force assigned – 30 days.
  • Army Combat Badge. Awarded for 90 days service to the 1 RAR, 2 RAR and 3 RAR Batallion Groups.
  • Infantry Combat Badge [ICB] is also awarded to those who served in one of the three Infantry Battalions: 1 RAR, 2 RAR and 3 RAR.
  • The US Presidential Unit Citation was awarded to the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3RAR), for their heroism in the battle of KAPYONG.
  • The South Korean Presidential Unit Citation was awarded by the South Korean Government to the RAN in recognition of those ships involved with the US 7th Fleet on 27 July 1953, and to 77 Squadron RAAF on 1 November 1951. In both cases, the citations were officially accepted. However, as part of a modified agreement with the Commander-in-Chief, British Commonwealth Forces Japan and Korea, approval by the Queen for those eligible to wear the accompanying emblem was not pursued at that time. The Governor-General, under delegated powers from the Queen, approved the wearing of the Citations in 1998.

The ships and units which were awarded the South Korean Presidential Unit Citation are; HMAS ANZAC, HMAS BATAAN, HMAS CONDAMINE, HMAS CULGOA, HMAS MURCHISON, HMAS SHOALHAVEN, HMAS SYDNEY including 805 Squadron, 808 Squadron, 815 Squadron, HMAS TOBRUK, HMAS WARRAMUNGA and 77 SQN (RAAF).

Died: 339

Wounded: Approximately 1,200

Prisoners: 29

.​

Army Combat Badge

Army Combat Badge

British Commonwealth Korea War Medal

British Commonwealth Korea War Medal

UN Korea Medal

UN Korea Medal

ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

AASM 45-75

AASM 45-75

South Korean Presidential Unit Citation

South Korean Presidential Unit Citation

United States Presidential Unit Citation

United States Presidential Unit Citation

UNITED NATIONS COMMAND MILITARY ARMISTICE COMMISSION (UNCMAC)

  • Australian Deployment Dates: 28 July 1953 to ongoing. 

    Strength: Originally 6 – with one ADF Senior officer & one ADF Senior NCO (Equivalent (E)), continually serving. Estimated Total: 68. 

    Area of Operations (AO): Korea 

    Purpose: UNCMAC was established in July 1953 at the end of the Korean War to supervise the Korean Armistice Agreement, and which has been operating ever since. UNCMAC’s observation role is limited to the monitoring of the armistice, the investigation of serious incidents and participation in relevant negotiations. UNCMAC does not permanently deploy observers along the ceasefire line. 

    Australia: Since 1956 the Australian Liaison Officer (ALO) within the Commonwealth Liaison Mission to UNCMAC carried out Australia’s UNCMAC responsibilities. The ALO was a Major (E) rank with an assistant of Corporal (E). Postings to the ALO varied from 18 months to 2 years. In 1967 the ALO team was reallocated as the Defence Attaché (DA) to the Australian Embassy in Seoul. In turn, the position ranks also raised one step to LTCOL (E) and SGT (E). Since then, Australia’s UNCMAC responsibilities have been that of the DA at the Australian Embassy in Seoul.

    Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 28 July 1953 onward.

    Service Type: Non-warlike. 

    Awards & Qualifying Periods: 

    • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘KOREA’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
    • Australian General Service Medal – Korea (AGSM-K). For 30 days service during the post-Armistice period from 28 July 1953 to 19 April 1956. Visitor/TDY – N/A.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 20 dated 3 March 2010
    • Australian Service Medal (1975-Present) with Clasp ‘KOREA’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
    • Returned from Active Service Badge (RASB): 30 Days Service from 28 July 1953 to 19 April 1956.
      Defence Honours and Awards Manual Chapter 40, para 40.12.

    .​
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp ‘S. PACIFIC 2006’

AGSM Korea

AGSM Korea

RASB

UNITED NATIONS COMMAND MILITARY ARMISTICE COMMISSION (UNCMAC)

  • Operation PALADIN 

    Australian Deployment Dates: 1956 to ongoing. 

    Strength: Total estimated to be 700. 12 personnel at any given time. Continual 12 month tours.

    Area of Operations (AO): Syria (including the Golan Heights) Amman – Jordan, Beirut – Lebanon, Cairo & Ismalia – Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE), Gaza, Damascus, Tiberius – Israel, Naquoura, Nahariya, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.

    Purpose: In April 1948 a Truce Commission was established to supervise the various armistices and truces after the first Arab-Israeli War. In mid-June 1948 military observers were added to the Commission and UNTSO was formed, becoming an independent observer mission in mid-August 1949. UNTSO has continued to supervise subsequent ceasefires after the 1956, 1967, 1973 and 1982 Arab-Israeli Wars. UNTSO’s area of operations covers Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Jordan and Egypt. Australia’s involvement in the mission commenced in 1956.

    Comments: Commanded by Australian Major General Tim Ford from 1998 to 2000. Australians serving with the Observer Group Lebanon have been kidnapped and maltreated by irregular militias. UNTSO remains as the UN’s (and Australia’s), longest ever peacekeeping mission.

    Died: 1 – On 12 January 1988, Captain Peter McCarthy, Royal Australian Corps of Transport, became the twenty-second UNTSO soldier to die on deployment when his jeep was blown up by a landmine during a patrol in southern Lebanon.

    Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 1 June 1956 onward. 

    Service Type: Non-warlike. 

    Awards & Qualifying Periods:
    • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945 – 1975) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
    • Australian Service Medal (1975 – Present) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’. Posted 90 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 418 dated 4 November 2002
    • UNTSO Medal. Force assigned – 6 months.


    .​
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp ‘S. PACIFIC 2006’

UNTSO Medal

UNTSO Medal

 
UNITED NATIONS OBSERVER GROUP IN LEBANON (UNOGIL) 

 

  • Australia: 11 July 1958 to 9 December 1958. 

    Strength: Unknown. 

    Area of Operations (AO): Lebanese border adjacent to Syria. 

    Purpose: To ensure that there was no illegal infiltration of personnel or supply of arms or other materiel across the Lebanese borders. After the conflict had been settled, tensions eased and UNOGIL was withdrawn. 

    Comments: Australian members of UNTSO were seconded to UNOGIL and were unarmed. 

    Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 11 July 1958 to 9 December 1958.

    Service Type: Non-warlike. 

    Awards & Qualifying Periods:
    • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
    • UNTSO Medal. Force assigned – 6 months.

    .​
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

UNTSO Medal

UNTSO Medal

   
UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN CONGO (ONUC) 

 

  • Australia: 1 Aug 1960 to Feb 1961 

    Strength: One medical team of 3 personnel 

    Area of Operations (AO): The Congo. 

    Purpose: In mid-1960, the newly independent Republic of the Congo began to disintegrate as a viable state and the former colonial power, Belgium, intervened to protect the large number of its citizens remaining there. ONUC was established to assist the Congolese government restore law and order and to supervise the withdrawal of Belgian forces. 

    Comments: Australia’s contribution was an Army medical team of three personnel, who were seconded to the International Red Cross though the Australian Red Cross and deployed to Bakwanga in the Congo to support ONUC’s efforts at national rehabilitation. Team members returned to Australia in December 1960 and February 1961. This medical team is recorded as not being included as participating with the UN Force in the Congo at that time. 

    Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 1 August 1960 ? (TBC). 

    Service Type: Non-warlike. 

    Gazette: Nil 

    Awards & Qualifying Periods: UNOC Medal. Force assigned – 3 months. 
 

UNOC Medal

   
UNITED NATIONS TEMPORARY EXECUTIVE AUTHORITY (UNTEA)  

 

 

Australia: 3 October 1962 to 30 April 1963. 

Strength: 11 personnel (total). Detachment from 16 Army Light Aircraft Squadron, consisting of four Army pilots, seven RAAF ground crew and two Sioux helicopters.

Area of Operations (AO): West New Guinea 

Purpose: In early 1962 Indonesian forces landed in the disputed territory of West New Guinea, which was then under Dutch control. Following the cessation of hostilities between Indonesia and the Netherlands, UNTEA was established in October 1962 to supervise the transfer of West New Guinea from Dutch to Indonesian administration. Established in October 1962 to maintain peace and security in the territory under the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority established by agreement between Indonesia and the Kingdom of the Netherlands. UNSF monitored the cease-fire and helped ensure law and order during the transition period, pending transfer to Indonesia. Upon completion of the mandate, the Mission was withdrawn in April 1963. 

Comments: Australia’s Helicopter team joined UNTEA to assist with the conduct of a cholera eradication program. The detachment was withdrawn near the end of the program after one of the helicopters crashed. There is however, no record from the UN of Australia joining the UNTEA team. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 3 October 1962 to 30 April 1963.

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

    • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘W NEW GUINEA’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
      Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: Gazette S 337 dated 5 September 1995
    • UNTEA Medal. Force assigned – 3 months.
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

UNTEA Medal

UNTEA Medal

   
UNITED NATIONS YEMEN OBSERVER MISSION (UNYOM)

 

 

Australia: 4 July 1963 to 4 September 1964. 

Strength: 2 

Area of Operations (AO): Yemen, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Republic. 

Purpose: Established in July 1963 to observe and certify the implementation of the disengagement agreement between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Republic. 

Comments: Mission ended its activities and was withdrawn in September 1964.

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 4 July 1963 to 4 September 1964.

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 of 27 March 2001
  • UNYOM medal. Force assigned – 60 days.
ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

UNYOM Medal

   
UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING FORCE IN CYPRUS (UNFICYP)

 

Australia: May 1964 to June 2017. 


Strength: A total of 111 contingents involving more than 1600 officers from all states and territories served with UNFICYP.

Area of Operations (AO): Cyprus. 

Purpose: UNFICYP is the world’s longest-running peacekeeping mission, and is focused on building and maintaining stability between the north and south of Cyprus. The Force was established in March 1964 in an attempt to prevent the recurrence of fighting between the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and, as necessary, to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order and a return to normal conditions. Since the hostilities of 1974, the mandate has included supervising the cease-fire and maintaining a buffer zone between the lines of the Cyprus National Guard and of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot forces to prevent further fighting between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots on the island. 

AFP: The AFP provided 15 officers on yearly rotation (later 6 month tours) to the 20-nation force which serves in policing, military and civilian roles. The policing contingent oversaw law enforcement within the buffer zone between Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities. AFP officers also supported the civil affairs branch of the mission to deliver humanitarian services and assist the military branch maintain the integrity of the buffer zone. 

Comments: From 1964 to 1976 all Australian Police Forces contributed volunteer personnel to the UN Force in Cyprus. From 1976 the Commonwealth Police took over the role until 1979 when the duty passed to the newly created AFP. 

Died: 3 – Sergeant Llewellyn Thomas, from South Australia Police, was involved in a car accident near Limassol and succumbed to his injuries on 26 July 1969. Inspector Patrick Hackett, from the NSW Police Force, was killed in a car accident near Stroumbi on 29 August 1971. Sergeant Ian Ward, also from the NSW Police Force, was killed on 12 November 1974, when the vehicle he was travelling in struck a landmine in the buffer zone between the north and south. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): NIL. 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Gazette: Unknown. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Police Overseas Service Medal (POSM) with Clasp ‘CYPRUS’. Unknown qualifying period.
  • UNFICYP medal. Force assigned – 3 months.
UNFICYP Medal

UNFICYP Medal

POSM

POSM

   
UNITED NATIONS INDIA-PAKISTAN OBSERVATION MISSION (UNIPOM)

 

Australia: 20 September 1965 to 1966. 

Strength: 3 

Area of Operations (AO): India and Pakistan.

Purpose: In September 1965, the UN negotiated a ceasefire to end the second Indo-Pakistan war and established UNIPOM to assist UNMOGIP in supervising the ceasefire and withdrawal of forces along the India-Pakistan border. This did not include Kashmir, which remained an UNMOGIP responsibility. 

Comments: Lieutenant General Nimmo, the Australian CMO of UNMOGIP, was appointed acting CMO UNIPOM until a separate CMO was available. When this occurred in October 1965, UN HQ delegated Nimmo oversight of both missions due to their close relationship. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 20 September 1965. 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘KASHMIR’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 274 dated 18 July 1996
  • UNMOGIP Medal. Force assigned – 6 months.
 
UNMOGIP Medal

UNMOGIP Medal

ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

   
UNITED NATIONS DISENGAGEMENT FORCE (UNDOF) 

 

Australia: 3 June 1974 to present. 

Strength: Unknown. Quoted by the ADF as “a few”. 

Area of Operations (AO): Syria (including the Golan Heights) Amman – Jordan, Beirut – Lebanon, Cairo & Ismalia – Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE), Gaza, Damascus, Tiberius – Israel, Naquoura, Nahariya, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.

Purpose: To supervise the cease-fire between Israel and Syria; to supervise the redeployment of Syrian and Israeli forces; and to establish a buffer zone, as provided in the Agreement on Disengagement between Israeli and Syrian Forces of May 1974. 

The force initially deployed consisted of a headquarters, two Infantry Battalions, two logistic companies and a group of 90 military observers assigned to UNDOF from UNTSO. It was believed to be the first time that a UN force comprising armed troops and unarmed officer observers had been raised. They performed the following tasks: man observation positions in battalion areas; carry out the inspections of the Limited Forces Areas (LFAs) as provided for in the agreement; conduct investigations; carry out routine or special patrols; and serve in staff positions. 

Comments: All Australian officers were unarmed and detached from the UNTSO mission. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 3 Jun 1974 onward. 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
  • Australian Service Medal (1975-Present) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 418 dated 4 November 2002
  • UNTSO Medal. Force assigned – 6 months. Australians have not been eligible for the UNDOF Medal as they were seconded to this mission for less than 90 days.
UNTSO Medal

UNTSO Medal

ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp

 
UNITED NATIONS EMERGENCY FORCE 2 (UNEF II) 

 

Australia: 25 October 1973 to 31 July 1979. 

Strength: Total Strength 280 personnel. Consisting of 46-man Detachment from 5 Squadron RAAF, operating four UH-1H Iroquois helicopters on six month tours plus an Army staff officer and a Warrant Officer on a twelve-month tour to HQ UNEF. 

Area of Operations (AO): Israel and Egypt. 

Purpose: Established in October 1973 to supervise the cease-fire between Egyptian and Israeli forces and, following the conclusion of the agreements of 18 January 1974 and 4 September 1975, to supervise the redeployment of Egyptian and Israeli forces and to control the buffer zones established under those agreements. The mandate for this Mission expired in July 1979 and the troops were withdrawn in Aug 1979. 

Comments : Nil. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 25 October 1973 to 31 July 1979.

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1945-1975) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 102 dated 27 March 2001
  • Australian Service Medal (1975-Present) with Clasp ‘MIDDLE EAST’. Posted – 90 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 418 dated 4 November 2002
  • UNEF II Medal. Force assigned – 90 days.
UNEFII Medal

UNEFII Medal

ASM 45-75

ASM 45-75

ASM 75+

ASM 75+

 
COMMONWEALTH MONITORING FORCE RHODESIA (CMFR) 

 

Operation AGILA 

Australian Deployment Dates: 1 December 1979 to 2 March 1980.

Strength: Australian Army contingent of 152 all ranks.

Area of Operations (AO): Rhodesia / Zimbabwe.

Purpose: In December 1979, the CMF was established by the Commonwealth to supervise the implementation of the Lancaster House Agreement between the government of Southern Rhodesia and the guerilla forces of the Patriotic Front. Under the agreement UK authority was restored over its rebellious colony and a ceasefire implemented. A general election followed and independence was achieved by the new Republic of Zimbabwe. 
The role of the multi-national force was to keep the peace between 22,000 guerrillas and the Rhodesian forces during the cease-fire run-up to the 1980 elections. The CMF was tasked with monitoring the agreement and resembled a UN observer mission except that its duties were more extensive, it enjoyed municipal backing.

Comments: The Australians were largely spread throughout the force, which consisted of a HQ and 3 Groups. The CMFR were armed as well as conducting the monitoring of the ceasefire and elections.

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 1 December 1979.

Service Type: Non-warlike.

Gazette: Nil.

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Rhodesia Medal. Posted – 14 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
  • Zimbabwe Independence Medal. Awarded to recipients of the Rhodesia Medal.
Rhodesia Medal

Rhodesia Medal

Zimbabwe Medal

Zimbabwe Medal

   
AUSTRALIAN ARMY CONTINGENT – 
THE COMMONWEALTH MILITARY TRAINING TEAM – UGANDA
 

 

Australia: 18 March 1982 to 24 March 1984. 

Strength: Total Strength 20 personnel. 4 Teams of 5 Infantry Officers, Warrant Officers and Senior NCOs. Each team deployed for 6 months. 

Area of Operations (AO): Uganda. 

Purpose: The role of the Commonwealth Military Training Team Uganda (CMTTU) was to train and discipline the Uganda National Liberation Army, which was formed after the overthrow of Idi Amin. 

Comments: The CMTTU consisted of a 36 man training team from seven Commonwealth countries. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 18 March 1982 to 24 March 1984.

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘UGANDA’. Posted – 90 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: GN26 dated 12 July 1989 
ASM with Clasp 'UGANDA'

ASM with Clasp ‘UGANDA’

 
   
MULTINATIONAL FORCE & OBSERVERS (MFO) 

 

Operation MAZURKA 

Australian Deployment Dates: 9 February 1982 to 28 April 1986; 6 January 1993 – ongoing. 

Strength: 1,152 personnel (1982-1986) consisting 8 UH-1H helicopters with 144 personnel on six-month tours. 5 Army and 2 RAAF officers worked at HQ MFO. Approximately 676 personnel (1993 to present) 26 -strong contingent at HQ MFO. 

Area of Operations (AO): The Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE), and Israel. 

Purpose: Operation Mazurka is Australia’s contribution to the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in the Sinai. The MFO was established in 1981 to oversee the Camp David Accords of 1978 and the Egypt/Israel Peace Treaty of 1979. Under the Accords, Israel withdrew from the Egyptian territory it had occupied since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. The MFO was created outside the framework of the UN because the Soviet Union was opposed to UN involvement. The MFO is governed by the US State Department and is headquartered in Rome. 

Comments: Australia and New Zealand contributed to the MFO at the outset by providing the Force’s Rotary Wing Aviation Unit (RWAU). The ADF provided a joint RAN / Army / RAAF detachment, comprising 8 UH-1H helicopters. The Contingent was withdrawn in April 1986 as the government sought to reduce Australia’s peacekeeping commitments. 

On 8 January 1993 the ADF returned to the Sinai again. A 26 strong contingent of HQ staff and MP’s initially on 12 month tours, then reduced to 6 – 9 month tours, rejoined the MFO following a review of the government’s position. Primarily the Australians assist in the peace process by monitoring the border and preparing daily operational briefings, and support to the Headquarters. In addition to these staff functions, they undertake an important force training function that includes physical training. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA): Schedule 3; 18 February 1983 onward. 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SINAI’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 27 dated 23 January 1997
  • MFO Sinai Medal. Force assigned – 90 days until 1985 when the criterion changed to 170 days.
 
ASM with clasp 'SINAI'

ASM with clasp ‘SINAI’

MFO Medal

MFO Medal

   
UNITED NATIONS IRAN-IRAQ MILITARY OBSERVER GROUP (UNIIMOG)  

 


Australia: 12 August 1988 to 28 February 1991. 

Strength: 60. 

Area of Operations (AO): Iran. 

Purpose: In early August 1988 the UN established UNIIMOG to supervise the ceasefire between Iran and Iraq at the end of their eight year long war, known as the First Gulf War. Australia’s involvement began with the temporary secondment of an observer from UNTSO, followed by a fifteen-man contingent from Australia four days later on 16 August. All the Australians served on the Iranian side of the ceasefire line because Iraq vetoed an Australian presence in Iraqi held territory. This was due to the fact that an Australian government scientist, Dr Peter Dunn, was a member of the UN team that had proved Iraqi use of chemical weapons during three inspections in the 1984-87 period. 

Comments: UNIIMOG service was particularly arduous due to a combination of a volatile ceasefire, climatic extremes, harsh terrain, primitive operational conditions, and the stress and social deprivation experienced by Westerners in a fundamentalist Islamic society. 

The Australian contingent were unarmed United Nations Military Observers (UNMO). 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 11 August 1988 to 28 February 1991. 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) (1975 – Present) with Clasp ‘IRAN-IRAQ’. Posted – 90 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: GN26 dated 12 July 1989
  • UNIIMOG Medal. Force assigned – 90 days.
 
ASM with Clasp 'IRAN - IRAQ'

ASM with Clasp ‘IRAN – IRAQ’

UNIIMOG Medal

   
UNITED NATIONS TRANSITION ASSISTANCE GROUP (UNTAG) 

 


Australia: 18 Feb 1989 to 10 Apr 1990. 

Strength: 613 total comprising two rotations. Contingents consisted of Royal Australian Engineers from 17 Construction Squadron, one RAAF officer, 5 Military Police, and a 3 person Royal Australian Signals Detachment. 

Area of Operations (AO): Namibia. 

Purpose: In April 1989, the UN established UNTAG in Namibia, South Western Africa, and to a limited extent in neighbouring countries. This was to supervise the return of refugees, the holding of a general election, the withdrawal of South African forces and Namibia’s transition to independence. The Australians were armed only with personal weapons during the entire mission. 

Comments: The Australian Contingent mainly consisted of Army Engineers. From 26 October to 20 November 1989, the Australian Electoral Commission provided an electoral organisation expert and 27 electoral supervisors. The Australian Federal Police contributed a fingerprint expert in order to assist in the conduct of the general election which was held in early November, 1989. 

The Australians were vital to the success of the mission as the Australian engineer and British signals advance parties were the only troops on the ground when the ceasefire collapsed in early April 1989. They were hurriedly redeployed to bolster a renegotiated ceasefire by supervising the withdrawal of SWAPO guerillas from Namibia. The Second contingent’s engineering and local security activities were also instrumental in the successful return of thousands of refugees and the conduct of the general election. 

Contingent members were originally awarded the Australian Service Medal however this descision was reversed and, on 26 July 2001 the award was upgraded to the Australian Active Service Medal. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 2; 18 Feb 1989 to 10 Apr 1990. 

Service Type: Warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘NAMIBIA’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 303 dated 26 July 2001
  • UNTAG Medal. Force assigned – 90 days.

 
ASM with Clasp 'NAMBIA'

ASM with Clasp ‘NAMBIA’

UNTAG Medal

UNTAG Medal

   
UNITED NATIONS MINE CLEARANCE TRAINING TEAM PESHWAR (UNMCTT)

 


Operation SALAAM 

Australian Deployment Dates: 16 July 1989 to December 1993.

Strength: Approx 95 personnel. Between 4 – 9 Army field Engineers per rotation.

Area of Operations (AO): Afghanistan & Pakistan.

Purpose: To train Pakistan based Afghan refugees in mine and ordnance recognition and basic clearance techniques. In January 1991, this broadened to include the planning and supervision of mine clearance activities in Afghanistan.

Comments: The UNMCTT originally consisted of contingents from nine countries, but only Australia remained by 1992. Its activities are conducted under the auspices of the Geneva based UN Coordinator for Afghanistan (UNOCA). In July 1993, Australia announced it would withdraw from HQ UNOCA and extracted its teams in December 1993.

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 16 July 1989 to December 1993.

Service Type: Non-warlike.

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘PESHWAR’. Posted – 90 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
    Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: GN16 dated 26 April 1990
  • United Nations Special Service Medal with Clasp ‘UNOCA’. Force assigned – 90 days.


 
ASM with Clasp 'PESHWAR'

ASM with Clasp ‘PESHWAR’

UN Special Services Medal

UN Special Services Medal

   
1990 - 2000
MARITIME INTERCEPTION FORCE (MIF 1) 

Operation DAMASK I and Operation DAMASK II 

Australian Deployment Dates: 2 August 1990 to16 January 1991. 

Strength: Total estimated at 1,000 service personnel. RAN Task Group intially consisted of HMAS Adelaide, Darwin and Success (Damask I). On 3 December 1990, HMAS Adelaide and Darwin were replaced by HMAS Sydney and Brisbane (Damask II). Also deployed were an 8 man Air Defence Detachment from 16 AD Regt, a RAN Logistic Support Element established at Muscat in Oman (13 strong), and a Liaison Officer attached to the senior US commander afloat in the area. 

Area of Operations (AO): The Persian Gulf, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia. 

Purpose: The Second Gulf War began on 2 August 1990 when Iraq invaded Kuwait. In response the UN Security Council passed Resolution 660 demanding that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait. On 26 August, Resolution 665 called on UN members to contribute naval forces to assist in implementing the trade sanctions from Resolution 665. Australia contributed to a Naval Task Group of 3 ships, Liaison Officers and Logistics support. 

Comments: By the end of December 1990, MIF 1 had conducted 6,945 interceptions of merchant vessels, including 487 boardings to check for illicit cargo, and 35 ships had been diverted to non-Iraqi ports.  The Australian Task Group conducted a significant share of these operations with 1,627 interrogations, 11 interceptions, 8 boardings and 2 diversions. HMAS Success departed the AO on 23 January 1991. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) :  Schedule 3; 2 August 1990 to 16 January 1991. 

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘KUWAIT’. Posted 7 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette: S 408 dated 18 August 1998

 
ASM1988

ASM ‘KUWAIT’

HUMANITARIAN OPERATIONS   
Australia: 1990 – ongoing 

Strength: thousands of ADF, Police and civilian personnel. 

AO: Worldwide but including so far: Afghanistan, Balkans, Cambodia, Christchurch, East Timor, Great Lakes (Africa), Haiti, Iraq, Japan, Mozambique, Northern Iraq, Samoa, Somalia, South Sudan, South Vietnam, Indian Ocean, Pakistan, Pakistan II, Ukraine. 

For each operation, participating organisations are determined to be eligible organisations for that operation. Defence has been an eligible organisation for Indian Ocean, Pakistan, Pakistan II, Japan and Ukraine. Details are contained in the relevant Commonwealth of Australia Gazettes. 

Some examples where Australia has assisted in Humanitarian and disaster relief operations include Papua New Guinea and West Irian drought relief, the Indian Ocean and Japan Tsunami disasters, British Columbia wildfires, Pakistan floods, Christchurch earthquakes, Nepal earthquakes, MH17 air disaster in Ukraine, and Pacific cyclone disasters. 

Awards: Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal (HOSM). * 

* The Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal honours members of recognised Australian groups for emergency humanitarian service overseas in hazardous circumstances. The Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal is administered by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet
HOSM

Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal

MULTINATIONAL FORCES IN IRAQ-KUWAIT (MNF I-K)   
Australia: 17 January 1991 to 28 February 1991. 

Strength: Approximately 1,812. Including HMAS Adelaide, Darwin, Success, Westralia and Sydney. Clearance Diving Team 3, Medical teams on board US navy Hospital ships in the area, plus a further composition of 18 ADF personnel who served with US and British Land, Sea and Air forces, and a 10 person Army / RAAF intelligence detachment attached to the HQ US Central Command. 

Area of Operations (AO): Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), The Persian Gulf, Kuwait, and Iraq. 

Purpose: On 29 November 1990 UN Resolution 678 gave Iraq six weeks to withdraw from Kuwait and authorised UN members to “use all necessary means” if Iraq failed to comply. The UN sanctioned operation to liberate Kuwait commenced with air and maritime campaigns in the early morning of 17 January 1991 followed by a massive ground offensive. 

Comments: Australia with it’s pre-positioned Ships operating in the Gulf and Red Sea areas were included into the operation. Further additions of Clearance Diving Teams, Intelligence and Medical and Surgical support were also involved.  18 ADF personnel who were on exchange postings to various British and US units deployed with their foreign unit to the Gulf. 

Their were a number of foreign medals awarded to personnel who participated in what is known as “Desert Storm”. These included the Liberation of Kuwait medal, the Saudi Arabia Gulf War Commemorative Medal, and the US Achievement Medal (JSAM). Although they were awarded to many Australians, the Federal Government has not given approval for them to be worn officially. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 2; 17 January 1991 to 28 February 1991. 

Service Type: Warlike. 

Gazette: S195 of 27 May 97 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:
  • Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘KUWAIT’. Posted 1 day or 1 sortie; Visitor / TDY – 30 days.
  • Meritorious Unit Citation (MUC), was awarded to HMAS Adelaide, Sydney and Clearance Diving Team 3 (CDT 3).
  • Army Combat Badge (ACB). Members of the Australian Army serving in the AO.
AASM with Clasp 'KUWAIT'

AASM with Clasp ‘KUWAIT’

Meritorious Unit Citation

Meritorious Unit Citation

Army Combat Badge

Army Combat Badge

INTERNATIONAL KURDISH RELIEF OPERATION 
   
Operation HABITAT (Iraq) 

Australian Deployment Dates: 1 May 1991 to 30 June 1991.

Strength: 75 ADF personnel.

Area of Operations (AO): Iraq and in the area of Turkey south of latitude 38° north. 

Purpose: Following the cease fire between Coalition military forces and Iraq, Resolution 688 authorised humanitarian assistance to Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq. The Kurds had for many decades been persecuted by the regime of Saddam Hussein and required urgent humanitarian assistance. 

Comments: 72 Army and 3 RAAF medical, dental, engineering and logistics personnel were deployed to Turkey and Iraq to assist Kurdish refugees. Although this was a humanitarian mission, elements of the ADF were engaged by Iraqi Republican Guard units which had retreated from the the border of Saudi Arabia soon after the commencement of the Gulf War. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 19 July 2006 : Hazardous Service on or after 7 May 1991. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ’. Alloted/ Assigned 30 days; Visitor/ TDY – 30 days.. 
ASM with Clasp 'EAST TIMOR'

ASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ’

United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

Operation GOODWILL 

Australia: 20 October 1991 to March 1992.

Strength: 65 Personnel.

Area of Operations (AO): Cambodia, Thailand and Laos. The latter two no further than 50km from the Cambodian border.

Purpose: UNAMIC was established in October 1991 to assist the Cambodian Parties to facilitate communications between the military headquarters of the four Cambodian Parties in matters relating to the cease-fire and to undertake a mine-awareness training role. Subsequently, this mandate was extended to include training in mine clearance and the initiation of a de-mining programme. The mandate for this Mission expired in March 1992 with the establishment of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia.

Comments: Australia contributed a 65-strong communications unit primarily from the 2nd Signals Regiment. Although originally awarded the Australian Service Medal, this was revised and the award was upgraded to the Australian Active Service Medal. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 2; 20 October 1991 to March 1992.

Service Type: Warlike.

Gazette: S102 of 27 Mar 01

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’. Posted – 1 day; Visitor / TDY – 30 days or aggregate of 30 days.
  • UNAMIC Medal. Force assigned – 90 days.

 

AASM with Clasp 'EAST TIMOR'

AASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’

UNAMIC Medal

UNAMIC Medal

UNITED NATIONS ADVANCED MISSION IN CAMBODIA (UNAMIC)
UNITED NATIONS TRANSITIONAL AUTHORITY IN CAMBODIA (UNTAC)
 

Operation GOODWILL & Operation GEMINI 

Australian Deployment Dates: 1991-1993 

Strength: 1279 ADF personnel – 65 Personnel of the UNAMIC Contingent on 12-month tour of duty, New Zealand communications staff (45 personnel on 6 month tours) collectively forming the Force Communications Unit (FCU UNTAC comprised 545 personnel from 1992-1993). Movement Control Group of 30 ADF Personnel. One Blackhawk Helicopter Squadron accompanied by an Infantry Protection Platoon (2/4 RAR). 

Area of Operations: Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam. 

In October 1991, prior to UNTAC being formally established, Australia contributed a 65-strong communications unit to its precursor, the UN Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC).  On UNTAC’s establishment, the ADF Contingent increased to 502 personnel, comprising 488 Force Communications Unit (FCU) and 14 staff on HQ UNTAC.  The FCU was originally based on the 2nd Signal Regiment but reinforced from many other units, including 20 personnel each from the RAN and the RAAF.  45 New Zealand personnel also bolstered the FCU. The FCU was spread across 56 locations throughout Cambodia and saw more action than any other UN unit. 

UNTAC was established under the 1991 Paris Agreements to supervise a ceasefire and a general election in Cambodia.  UNTAC’s Military component consisted of 16,000 personnel from 32 countries.  The Force Commander of this highly demanding and complex operation was Lieutenant General J.M. Sanderson AC. 

Wounded:  3 

Injured:  10 

VEA: Schedule 2, (20 Oct 1992 ¬ 7 Oct 1993). Schedule 3, (8 Oct 1993 – 14 Nov 1993) 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) (Originally awarded the ASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’, however was reviewed and changed to AASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’ ; ASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’ (Awarded for service to UNTAC 8 Oct 1993 14 Nov 1993) ; UNAMIC Medal ; UNTAC Medal. 

 

AASM with Clasp 'CAMBODIA'

AASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’

ASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’

ASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’

UNAMIC Medal

UNAMIC Medal

UNTAC Medal

UNTAC Medal

 

UNITED NATIONS MISSION FOR THE REFERENDUM IN WESTERN SAHARA
MISSION DES NATIONS UNIES POUR UN REFERENDUM AU SAHARA OCCIDENTAL (MINURSO)

Operation CEDILLA 

Australia: 5 September 1991 to 25 May 1994. 

Strength: Total of 219 personnel consisting of 5 contingents of 45.

Area of Operations (AO): Western Sahara, south-west Algeria and Morocco.

Western Sahara

Western Sahara



Purpose: Since Spain’s unilateral withdrawal from the Western Sahara territory in 1976, the Frente POLISARIO (POLISARIO Front), the politico-military organization who represent the Saharawi people, have fiercely resisted annexation by neighbouring Morocco. A guerrilla war continued until 1991 when the UN brokered a cease-fire. Following this, in September 1991, MINURSO was established to: monitor the ceasefire; monitor the confinement of Moroccan and POLISARIO Front troops to designated locations; ensure the release of all Western Saharan political prisoners or detainees; verify the reduction of Moroccan troops in the Territory; oversee the exchange of prisoners of war; implement the repatriation programme (UNHCR); identify and register qualified voters; and to organize and ensure a free and fair referendum and proclaim the results. 

Australia provided the mission’s 45-strong Force Communications Unit from 1991 until mid 1994. The Australian Contingent primarily provided combat net radio, messaging and higher command link communications from Force HQ in Laâyoune to each sector HQ and further to teamsite level within the sectors as required. In addition, the Contingent performed driving tasks including fuel tanker and flat-bed fuel (44 gal drums) and propane (canister) resupply to teamsites widely dispersed on both sides of the ‘berm’ – an approx 2,700 km-long defensive wall which stretches along the entire length of the disputed territory through Western Sahara and the southeastern portion of Morocco and separates the Moroccan-administered portion (west) from the area that is controlled by the POLISARIO Front (east). 

History: Western Sahara, a Territory on the north-west coast of Africa bordered by Morocco, Mauritania and Algeria, was administered by Spain until 1976. The Frente Popular para la Liberación de Saguia el-Hamra y de Río de Oro (POLISARIO Front) began in May 1973 as an insurgency (based in neighbouring Mauritania) against Spanish control of Western Sahara. After Spain withdrew and Morocco and Mauritania partitioned Western Sahara between themselves in 1976, the POLISARIO Front relocated to Algeria, which henceforth provided the organization with bases and military aid. Mauritania made peace with the POLISARIO Front in 1979, but Morocco then unilaterally annexed Mauritania’s portion of Western Sahara. 

During the 1980s POLISARIO Front guerrillas, numbering some 15,000 motorized and well-armed troops, harassed and raided Moroccan outposts and defenses in Western Sahara. Morocco responded by constructing a berm, or earthen barrier, some 1,240 miles (2,000 km) long, which was completed by 1987. Although Algerian diplomatic support continued, military support was reduced during the 1990s. 

A guerrilla war with the POLISARIO Front contesting Morocco’s sovereignty ended in a 1991 UN-brokered cease-fire. Since then a UN-organized referendum on the territory’s final status has been repeatedly postponed. 

The UN since 2007 has sponsored intermittent talks between representatives of the Government of Morocco and the POLISARIO Front to negotiate the status of Western Sahara. Morocco has put forward an autonomy proposal for the territory, which would allow for some local administration while maintaining Moroccan sovereignty. The POLISARIO Front, with Algeria’s support, demands a popular referendum that includes the option of independence. 

The natural hazards synonymous with the Sahara have been compounded by the man-made hazards of an area that has been a battlefield for more than 80 years. The mine hazards, isolation and the exceptionally harsh conditions of the Sahara were a part of every day living on MINURSO. 

Killed: 1 – On 21 June 1993, Army Doctor Major Susan Felsche, Royal Australian Army Medical Corps, was killed in a Medical Unit aircraft crash. The Pilatus Porter, in which she was a passenger, crashed on take-off at Awsard airfield, Southern Sector, Western Sahara. She was the first Australian female soldier to die in a multinational peacekeeping operation and the first Australian servicewoman to die in an overseas military operation since World War 2. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 5 September 1991 to 25 May 1994.

Service Type: Non-warlike. 

Gazette: S298 of 21 Oct 91 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘WEST SAHARA’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A.
  • MINURSO Medal. Force assigned – 90 days.

 

MINURSO Medal

MINURSO Medal

ASM with Clasp ‘WEST SAHARA’

ASM with Clasp ‘WEST SAHARA’

 

UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMISSION (UNSCOM) 

Operation BLAZER 

Australian Deployment Dates: 1 May 1991 to 30 June 1998.

Strength: Total contribution 96 personnel. Between 2 and 6 ADF personnel deployed on 3 – 6 month rotations. 

Area of Operations (AO): Iraq.

Purpose: In April 1991 Resolution 687 imposed a peace agreement and disarmament provisions on Iraq and established a UN Special Commission. UNSCOM was tasked with locating and supervising the destruction of Iraqi nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction capabilities.

Comments: Australia deployed between 2 and 6 ADF personnel and scientific experts to UNSCOM on three to six month tours. The Commission wound up operations in 1999, due to Iraqi accusations that the British and US used spying methods to detect the Iraqi Weapons of mass destruction. At the center of the controversy, was UNSCOM’s Commissioner – Australian Richard Butler.

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 19 July 2006 : Hazardous Service on or after 2 July 1991. 

Gazette: S64 of 28 Feb 02 

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ’. Alloted/ Assigned – 7 days, must have done a minimum of one site inspection.
  • United Nations Special Service Medal with Clasp ‘UNSCOM’. Force assigned – 90 days.
     

 

 

ASM1988

ASM ‘IRAQ’

UN Special Services Medal

UN Special Services Medal

 

3rd COUNTRY DEPLOYMENTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST: 1991 – 2003
ADF Pers Attached to U.S. & U.K. units Enforcing No-fly Zones
 

Operations JURAL, PROVIDE COMFORT, BOLTON, SOUTHERN WATCH & NORTHERN WATCH 

Strength: Unknown.

Area of Operations (AO): Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Turkey.

Purpose: Following the surrender of Iraq to Coalition Forces on 28 February 1991, no-fly zones were established to prevent any remnants of the Iraqi Armed Forces from persecuting the Kurdish and Shia populations. Two zones were created; the Northern Zone to protect the Kurds, and the Southern to protect the Shia’s. In addition to providing protection to these two minority groups, the no-fly zones covered the main ground and air supply routes into Iraq allowing for the interdiction of goods and materiel that were embargoed by U.N. sanctions.

Comments: Members of the ADF posted or on exchange to units of the US and UK Air Forces participated in the enforcement of the no-fly zones. This was not restricted to aircrew but ground support crews as well. It is not known how many members of the ADF were involved in all of the listed Operations.

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 2; See below for Warlike Service. Schedule 3; See below for Non-warlike Service.

Service Type: Warlike – Op Jural in Iraq 30 June 1991 to 12 January 2003; Op Provide Comfort in Iraq 11 August 1991 to 15 December 1996; Op Bolton in Iraq 31 August 1992 to 12 January 2003; Op Southern Watch in Iraq 31 August 1992 to 12 January 2003; Op Northern Watch 1 January 1997 to 12 January 2003.

Non-warlike – Op Bolton in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Turkey 13 May 1999 to 12 January 2003; Op Southern Watch in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Turkey 23 September 1999 to 12 January 2003.

Gazette: S64 of 28 Feb 02 amended by PERS DSC 006 07

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

  • Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ’. Posted – 1 day / 1 sortie; Visitor / TDY – N/A. For listed Warlike Service.
  • Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ’. Posted – 30 days; Visitor / TDY – N/A. For listed Non-warlike Service.

 

 

ASM1988

ASM ‘IRAQ’

AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ’

 

2nd MARITIME INTERCEPTION FORCE (MIF II) 

Operation DAMASK III 

Australian Deployment Dates: 1 March 1991 to 15 July 2003. 

AO: The Persian Gulf, the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea.

Purpose: Following the liberation of Kuwait, UN sanctions continued against Iraq because it continued to defy Security Council Resolutions.  HMAS Westralia remained in the Arabian Gulf supporting these sanctions and was replaced in mid June 1991 by HMAS Darwin. Subsequently, HMAS Sydney, HMAS Canberra, HMAS Melbourne and HMAS Parramatta rotated on approximately six-month deployments. 

Deployed: 2,000 +. One Royal Australian Navy ship per rotation. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 3; 1 March 1991 to 15 July 2003.

Service Type: Non-warlike.

Gazette: S408 of 18 Aug 98 

Awards & Qualifying Periods: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘KUWAIT’. Posted 7 days; Visitor / TDY – 30 days. 

ASM1988

ASM ‘KUWAIT’

 

 

UNITED NATIONS PROTECTION FORCE IN CROATIA, BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA & MACEDONIA (UNPROFOR)
(Former Yugoslavia)

Australia: 12 January 1992 to December 1992. 

AO: Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia (The Former Yugoslavia). 

Purpose : UNPROFOR was established in February 1992 as an interim arrangement to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslavian crisis. The role of the UN troops was to ensure that areas designated as “UN Protected Areas” (UNPA) became and remained demilitarized and that all persons residing in these areas were protected from fear of armed attack. The role of UN police monitors was to ensure that local police forces carried out their duties without discriminating against persons of any nationality or abusing any human rights. The force also assisted the humanitarian agencies of the UN in the return of all displaced persons who so desired.

There were several extensions of the original UNPROFOR covering the following purposes: reopening of the Sarajevo airport for humanitarian purposes; establishing a security zone encompassing Sarajevo and its airport; protection of convoys of released detainees in Bosnia and Herzegovina as requested by the International Committee of the Red Cross; monitoring arrangements for the complete withdrawal of the Yugoslavian Army from Croatia; the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula and the removal of heavy weapons from neighbouring areas of Croatia and Montenegro (Res 779,1992); monitoring compliance with the ban on military flights (Res 781,1992); and the establishment of the United Nations presence in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Comments: The UN established the UN Mission of Liaison Officers in Yugoslavia  (UNMLOY). This became UNPROFOR in June 1992. Australia’s involvement began from the start when Colonel (later Brigadier) J.B. Wilson, then serving as Chief of Staff HQ UNTSO, was seconded to command UNMLOY on 11 January 1992. Brigadier Wilson served as Chief Military Observer (CMO) of UNPROFOR’s Observer Group until December 1992. 

Deployed: 4 Officers. 

Veteran Entitlement Act (VEA) : Schedule 2; 12 January 1992 to December 1992.

Service Type: Warlike. 

Gazette: S102 of 27 Mar 01

Awards & Qualifying Periods:

    • Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp “BALKANS”. Posted – 1 day; Visitor / TDY – 30 days or aggregate of 30 days.
      (upgraded from ASM to AASM on 7 March 2001).

 

  • UNPROFOR Medal. Force assigned – 90 days.
 
AASM with Clasp 'ICAT'

AASM with Clasp ‘BALKLANDS’

UNPROFOR Medal

UNPROFOR Medal

 

FIRST UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN SOMALIA (UNOSOM I)

Operation IGUANA 

Australia: 17 Oct 1992 – 4 May 1993 (Australian Contingents 1 + 1 1/2) Deployed 

AO: Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti 

In late 1990 and throughout 1991, Somalia collapsed into clan warfare and then civil war. As 1992 progressed the civil war worsened and the country effectively ceased to function as an organised nation state. Mass starvation and anarchy followed. 

Beginning tentatively in September 1992, the UN stepped in to protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance and to reconstitute Somalia as a functioning political, social and economic entity. 

On 15 December 1992, the Government agreed to the deployment of a contingent of Australian Defence Force personnel to Somalia as part of the United Nations peacekeeping efforts in the region. The Government also decided that, for the period of Australia’s contribution to the United Nations operations, Somalia would be designated as an operational area for the purposes of the Veterans’ Entitlements Act and that operational service in Somalia would also be designated as “qualifying service”. The significance of declaring the area as an operational area is that it will provide for entitlement in respect of incapacity or death arising out of that service to be determined on the more generous standard of proof. “Qualifying service” gives rise to entitlement to service pension, provided all the other conditions relating to the payment of service pension are met. On 20 October 1992, the ADF MovCon Unit (MCU) arrived in Somalia to assist UNOSOM I cope with the influx of assigned forces. The original 36 members of MovCon and the advance party of 5 pers transitioned to UNOSOM II. The 36 MovCon pers were repatriated to Australia on 8 Jul 1993 and replaced by ASC 2. UNOSOM I was not replaced by UNITAF (Op SOLACE). They were parallel operations. 

Deployed: 36 – Movement Control Unit (MovCon) from the three services. 

Augmentation: 5 pers – Advance party for HQ UNOSOM II arrive in Mar 1993. 

Total Pers: 41 (ASC 1 + 1 1/2) 

VEA: Schedule 3 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SOMALIA’ – 30 days ; UNOSOM Medal – 90 days. 

 
ASM with Clasp ‘SOMALIA'

ASM with Clasp ‘SOMALIA’

UNOSOM Medal

UNOSOM Medal

 

UNIFIED TASK FORCE IN SOMALIA (UNITAF) 

Operation SOLACE 

Australia: 21 Dec 1992 – 21 May 1993. (end date is when last member departed AO). 

AO: SOMALIA 

Background: By late 1992, the catastrophic situation in Somalia had outstripped the UN’s ability to quickly restore peace and stability, mainly because the UN was hamstrung by insufficient forces and UN peacekeeping principles and methods could not cope with the need to sue force in such complex situations. On 3 December 1992, UN Security Council Resolution 794 authorised a coalition of UN members, under US command, to form UNITAF and intervene to protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance and restore peace. UNITAF was used as an interim force until UNOSOM II came into being. 

Australia deployed an Infantry Battalion plus supporting elements, including a Squadron of Armoured Personnel Carriers, HQ Staff, Engineers, Communications and Electronic Warfare Detachments, and Administrative elements; and HMAS Tobruk. The RAAF were also used to move the Australian Forces to and from the Area of Operations from Australia and conducted regular resupply missions. 

The Battalion group operated the 17,000 square kilometre Baidoa Humanitarian Relief Sector in southwestern Somalia. The Battalion group was very successful at fostering and protecting humanitarian relief efforts and won widespread international praise for its efforts in restoring law and order and re-establishing functional legal, social and economic systems. 

Deployed: Approx 1,500. 1 RAR Group +, HQ Australian Forces Somalia (UNITAF), HMAS Tobruk, HMAS Jervis Bay, RAN Clearance Diving Team 1, RAAF elements. 

Killed: (1) Lance Corporal Shannon McAliney, RAINF, 1st Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment. Accidentally shot dead on patrol on 2 April 1993. 

Wounded: 4 

Injured: 1 

VEA: Schedule 2 

Awards: AASM with Clasp ‘SOMALIA’. 1 day/1 sortie; visitors 30 days

 
 
AASM with Clasp 'SOMALIA'

AASM with Clasp ‘SOMALIA’

 

 

SECOND UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN SOMALIA (UNOSOM II) 

Operation IGUANA 

Australia: 5 May 1993 – 30 Nov 1994 (Australian withdrawal date) Australian Contingents 2, 3, 4 

AO: Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti. 

On 5 May 1993, UNITAF handed over to a reinforced UNOSOM II. The Australian Battalion Group withdrew to Australia. The ADF Contingent provided Movement control, Air Traffic Control, some HQ Staff and a Ready Reaction Security Team of the Mogadishu airport (mainly SAS with 126 Sig Sqn). The 5 members of Australian Contingent (ASC) 1 1/2 had a 9 month deployment in total. ASC 2 arrived on 8 Jul 1993. ASC 2, 3 + 4 each had a 6 month deployment. 

Deployed: 170 total including UNOSOM I members from ASC 1 + 1 1/2. 36 Movements and Air Traffic Control Staff, 12 man Ready Reaction Security Team (mainly SAS) and some HQ staff – total of 50 personnel per tour of duty (6 months) – totalling to approx 150. 

VEA: Schedule 2 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SOMALIA’ – 30 days ; UNOSOM Medal – 90 days. 

 
 
ASM with Clasp 'SOMALIA'

ASM with Clasp ‘SOMALIA’

UNOSOM Medal

UNOSOM Medal

 

CAMBODIA MINE ACTION CENTRE (CMAC) &
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (UNDP) – CAMBODIA
 

Operation BANNER 

Australia: 8 October 1993 – 4 October 1999 

AO: Cambodia and the areas of Laos and Thailand that are not more than 50 kilometres from the border with Cambodia 

Danger! Mines!

Danger! Mines!


CMAC was established during the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) in 1992, in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 880/93, in order to assist the safe return of thousands of refugees to their homelands across the country. Recognizing that the large number of landmines and UXO across Cambodia was a significant threat to post conflict reconstruction and continuing development, CMAC became an autonomous national organization in 2000 and developed a series of programs including landmine awareness, landmine field information, landmine and UXO clearance and training in landmine clearance to achieve the safe transition to peace and security for the people of Cambodia. 

CMAC carries out its mandate by providing mine awareness training to the people of Cambodia and by conducting minefield, and unexploded ordnance, survey, marking and clearance operations. For more information on CMAC today: cmac.gov.kh/ 

Deployed: 6-8 Army Officers, Warrant Officers and SNCOs on 6 month rotations. Estimated total of 40. 
Note: The ADF provided personnel to the United Nations Military Liaison Team in addition to the CMAC. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 21st June 2000: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘Cambodia’ ; UNDP personnel received the United Nations Special Service Medal (UNSSM) with Clasp ‘CMAC’. 

 
 
ASM with Clasp 'CAMBODIA'

ASM with Clasp ‘CAMBODIA’

UN Special Services Medal

UN Special Services Medal

 

UNITED STATES FORCES IN HAITI
Australia: 1994. 

AO: Haiti 

Background: On 30 September 1991, President Aristide (the democratically elected president), was overthrown in a coup de’tat, headed by Lieutenant-General Raoul Cedras and forced into exile. The violent and unconstitutional actions of the Haitian military forces were immediately and strongly condemned by the international community. 

The Multinational Force (MNF), Haiti, was authorised by the Security Council of the United Nations in July 1994 and was instructed to bring about the end to the regime that ousted the country’s democratically elected government in 1991, and ensure the return of President Aristide. 

In September 1994, the President of the United States, Bill Clinton, stated that all diplomatic efforts had been exhausted and, in accordance with Security Council resolution 940 (1994), force might be used to remove the military leadership from power in Haiti and ensure the return of the democratic Government of President Aristide. 

The military involvement in Haiti began on 19 September 1994, in which the US led a 28 nation MNF into Haiti – unopposed. On 28 September 1994, LTGEN Cedras resigned as Commander-in-Chief of the Haitian Armed Forces. UNMIH followed with UNMOs monitoring the progress of Resolution 940. 

Deployed: 3 Army personnel (2 x CAPT and 1 x SSGT) and a number of Australian police officers. The MNF included police officers from a number of countries including Australia and was the first overseas mission where Australian Police Officers were armed. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 19 July 2006 : Hazardous Service on or after 17 September 1994. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘HAITI’ ; Multination Force Haiti (US)  Campaign Medal ; may be entitled to the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) medal. 
 
ASM with Clasp 'HAITI'

ASM with Clasp ‘HAITI’

UNMIH Medal

UNMIH Medal

 

SOUTH PACIFIC PEACEKEEPING FORCE (SPPKF) 
Operation LAGOON 

Australia: 4-21 October 1994. 

AO: Papua New Guinea – BOUGAINVILLE 

Since 1988, the Eastern Island of Bougainville, which nestles in between the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea, had seen a protracted guerrila war against the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF). The guerillas – the Bouganville Revolutionary Army (BRA), were fighting for independence from PNG, allowing themselves to establish an autonomous Country, rich in mineral resources. 

In an attempt to bring peace and stability to the region, Australia led a peacekeeping force to broker a peace agreement between the PNG Government and the BRA, with a view to hold free and fair elections in the long term. This force was known as the South Pacific Peacekeeping Force (SPPKF), which deployed between 4-21 October 1994. 

Tasked with providing security for the Peace conference held in Arawa, the SPPKF was deployed to cover four neutral zones, Team Sites were established to each of the four neutral zones, with a HQ established in ARAWA. Support was provided by Tonga, Fiji and Vanuatu in the provision of Infantry troops, with New Zealand providing additional C-130 aircraft. 

The Bougainville Revolutionary Army, (BRA), not trusting the allegance of the SPPKF with the Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF), did not attend the Peace conference. As a result the conference collapsed. OPERATION LAGOON lasted less than 3 weeks with only limited success in that an agreement was signed committing the island to long term peace. 

The Truce Monitoring Group (TMG) and the Peace Monitoring Group (PMG), with troops and personnel provided from Australia, New Zealand, Tonga, Vanuatu and Fiji was to be established late in 1997. 

Deployed: Army: SASR; 3rd Brigade, including 103 Signal Squadron, 5th Aviation Regiment (4 X Blackhawks), 4 Field Regiment (RAA), 3rd Combat Engineer Regiment, 3rd Brigade Administrative Support Battalion (Medics); RAN assests: HMA Ships SUCCESS, TOBRUK & 2 X Sea King Helicopters; RAAF Assets: Medics, Air Transportable Telecommunications Unit (ATTU), 2 X CC-08 Caribou (Short Range Transport aircraft), 4 x C-130 Hercules (Long Range Transport aircraft) with ground crews. 

Strength: Approx 800. 

VEA: Schedule 3 from 21 September 1994. 

Awards: Nil.
 

 

UNITED NATIONS ASSISTANCE MISSION TO RWANDA (UNAMIR II) 

Operation TAMAR 

Australia: 25 July 1994 – 8 March 1996. 

AO: Rwanda and the areas in Uganda, Zaire (now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Burundi and Tanzania that are not more than 50 kilometres from the border with Rwanda. 

Background: Fighting between the Armed Forces of the mainly Hutu Government of Rwanda and the Tutsi-led Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF) first broke out in October 1990 across the border between Rwanda and its northern neighbour, Uganda. A number of ceasefire agreements followed but hostilities resumed in the northern part of the country in early February 1993. The United Nations active involvement in Rwanda started in 1993, when Rwanda and Uganda requested the deployment of military observers along the common border to prevent the military use of the area by RPF. In October 1993, the Security Council established another international force, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), to help the parties implement the agreement, monitor its implementation and support the transitional Government. UNAMIR’s demilitarized zone sector headquarters was established upon the arrival of the advance party and became operational on 1 November 1993. Deployment of the UNAMIR battalion in Kigali, composed of contingents from Belgium and Bangladesh, was completed in the first part of December 1993, and the Kigali weapons-secure area was established on 24 December. 

The United Nations solicited troop contributions, but initially only Belgium with a half a battalion of 400 troops, and Bangladesh with a logistical element of 400 troops, offered personnel. It took five months to reach the authorized strength of 2,548. But because of many unresolved issues between the parties, implementation of the agreement was delayed. Consequently, the inauguration of the transitional Government never took place. Within a background of distrust and revenge, in April 1994, the Presidents of Rwanda and of Burundi were killed while returning from peace talks in Tanzania, when the Rwandese plane crashed, in circumstances that are still to be determined, as it was landing in Kigali, Rwanda’s capital. This set off a tidal wave of political and ethnic killings: the Prime Minister, cabinet ministers and UNAMIR peacekeepers were among the first victims. The killings, targeting Tutsi and moderate Hutus, were mainly carried out by the armed forces, the presidential guard and the ruling party’s youth militia. The RPF resumed its advance from the north and the east of Rwanda, and government authority disintegrated. 

An interim Government was formed, but failed to stop the massacres. With the RPF’s southward push, the number of displaced persons and refugees increased tremendously. On 28 April alone, 280,000 people fled to Tanzania to escape the violence. Another wave of refugees went to Zaire. The United Nations and other agencies provided emergency assistance on an unprecedented scale. UNAMIR sought to arrange a ceasefire, without success, and its personnel came increasingly under attack. However US pressure mounted in New York to reduce the UN involvement. After some countries unilaterally withdrew their contingents, the Security Council on 21 April 1994, reduced UNAMIR’s strength from 2,548 to 270. Despite its reduced presence, UNAMIR troops managed to protect thousands of Rwandese who took shelter at sites under UNAMIR control. 

UNAMIR could do little to stop the genocide. As the situation worsened, Belgium withdrew its UN personnel and it was debated if all of UNAMIR should be withdrawn. However, on 17 May 1994, the UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo against Rwanda, and called for urgent international action and increased UNAMIR’s strength to up to 5,500 troops. Known as UNAMIR II, its task was to “contribute to the security and protection of displaced persons, refugees and civilians at risk in Rwanda”, including, where possible, the establishment of “secure humanitarian areas”. Australia agreed to send a medical team to provide support for UNAMIR II personnel and, as a secondary role, to provide humanitarian relief to the Rwandans. 

To contribute to the security of civilians, the Council authorized a multi-national humanitarian operation. French-led multinational forces carried out “Operation Turquoise”, which established a humanitarian protection zone in south-western Rwanda. The operation ended in August 1994 and UNAMIR took over in the zone. In July, RPF forces took control of Rwanda, ending the civil war, and established a broad-based Government. The new Government declared its commitment to the 1993 peace agreement and assured UNAMIR that it would cooperate on the return of refugees. By October 1994, estimates suggested that out of a population of 7.9 million, at least half a million people had been killed. Some 2 million had fled to other countries and as many as 2 million people were internally displaced. A United Nations humanitarian appeal launched in July raised $762 million, making it possible to respond to the enormous humanitarian challenge. A Commission of Experts established by the Security Council reported in September that “overwhelming evidence” proved that Hutu elements had perpetrated acts of genocide against the Tutsi group in a “concerted, planned, systematic and methodical way.” The final report of the Commission was presented to the Council in December 1994. 

ADF: July 1994 – March 1996. Australia agreed to send a medical team to provide support for UNAMIR II personnel and, as a secondary role, to provide humanitarian relief to the Rwandans. 

Australia sent two contingents to Rwanda, each one serving for six months. The first Australian contingent, comprising 308 members, mostly arrived in the country in late August. Later known as AUSMED, the Australian Medical Support Force provided UNAMIR’s medical support and was made up of a medical company, an infantry company group from 2/4 RAR, four Armoured Personnel Carriers, Signals and a logistic support company. The medical company included two specialist surgical teams, a preventative medical section, a medical support platoon (providing pathology and pharmacy functions), and a dental capacity. The medical unit was not based on an established medical unit but instead drew its members from the three services – 17 from the RAAF, seven from the RAN, and the rest from the army. Twenty-six members of the medical team were women. 

Flying into Kigali, the Australians based themselves at the Kigali Central Hospital, which had been badly damaged during the fighting. They set up an operating theatre in the only room without holes in the roof from mortar shells. The Australians also had the only working X-ray centre in Rwanda, the only blood bank, the only intensive care unit, and the only air-conditioned operating theatre. 

Although the contingent was tasked to provide medical assistance to UNAMIR II, most cases treated by the Australians were Rwandans. The contingent also trained local hospital staff and sent small groups to provincial towns to provide medical aid. Infantry soldiers accompanied the medical teams and gave them protection. 

The second contingent that took over from the first during the last weeks of February 1995 included B Company 2 RAR, engineers from the 3rd Combat Engineer Regiment, and armoured personnel carriers from B Squadron 3rd/4th Cavalry Regiment. Surgeons and other medical specialists, mainly from the Army Reserve, as well as the RAN and RAAF Reserve, were rotated through the force on a six-week basis. 

On 19 April 1995 a group of 32 Australian soldiers and medical personnel were sent to the Kibeho refugee camp to assist refugees and UNAMIR activities. The situation within the camp was desperate. There was little food or water and the refugees, mostly Hutu who may have taken part in the earlier genocide, were harassed by the RPF. 

From 20 to 23 April the RPF began to close down and empty the camp. The already tense situation descended into a violent massacre, with the RPF killing around 4,000 people and injuring 600. Under fire and often under the threat of the RPF, the Australians managed to set up a Casualty Evacuation station and conduct triage and treatment for the wounded Hutus. The medical team struggled to cope with the sheer volume of wounded, many of whom were evacuated to Kigali hospital. In addition to the Australian troops, a company of Zambian peacekeepers was also in Kibeho when the massacre began. Restricted by the UN Mandate and the Rules of Engagement, the Australian soldiers could only look on in horror as to what had unfolded in front of them. It was later argued that UN presence at Kibeho stopped the RPF from killing everyone in the camp and creating an even worse outcome. 

After the Kibeho massacre the Australians concentrated on training the Rwandans to whom they handed over some hospital duties. In August the Australians were replaced by a team of 30 civilians from Norway. 

The MSF was awarded the RSL ANZAC Peace Prize in 1995, for outstanding restoration of peace in the strife-torn central African nation. 

Deployed: 652 (Total with ASC1 & ASC2 rotations). Medical Support Force – comprising ADF Medical and Surgical Personnel, Infantry Rifle Company, APC Section, Engineers, Signals, RAEME and supporting elements. 

Wounded: 3 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 26th March 2006: Warlike Service. 

Awards: *Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘ RWANDA’ ; UNAMIR Medal.
* Upgraded from Australian Service Medal Gazette S79 dated 23 May 2006. 

 
AASM with Clasp 'RAWANDA'

AASM with Clasp ‘RAWANDA’

UNAMIR Medal

UNAMIR Medal

UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN MOZAMBIQUE (ONUMOZ)

Operation CORACLE 

Australia: 12 July 1994 – 31 Mar 2002 

AO: MOZAMBIQUE 

The Mission was established by Security Council Resolution 782 of 13 October 1992 to monitor and verify the cease-fire, the separation and concentration of forces, their demobilization and the collection, storage and destruction of weapons; to monitor and verify the complete withdrawal of foreign forces; to monitor and verify the disbanding of private and irregular armed groups; to authorize security arrangements for vital infrastructures; to provide security for the United Nations and other international activities in support of the peace process, especially in the corridors; to provide technical assistance and monitor the entire electoral process; to coordinate and monitor all humanitarian assistance operations, in particular those related to refugees, internally displaced persons, demobilized military personnel and the affected local population and to facilitate the implementation of the general peace agreement for Mozambique. Upon completion of the task, the UN Mission was terminated in January 1995. 

Australia’s role was to provide Engineer instructional support for the Demining program of ONUMOZ, teaching mine awareness, detection and destruction. 

The Australian Contribution was withdrawn on January 2002 due to the change of the United Nations Mandate to a Non-Government Organisation (NGO). 

Deployed: Engineer instructional support (2 Personnel). Estimated total 31 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 19 July 2006 : Hazardous Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp “MOZAMBIQUE” ; ONUMOZ medal. 

 
ASM

ASM

ONUMOZ Medal

ONUMOZ Medal

UNITED NATIONS VERIFICATION MISSION IN GUATEMALA (MINUGUA) 

Australia: 13 February 1997 to 12 May 1997 

AO: GUATEMALA. 

In September 1994, the General Assembly decided to establish a Human Rights Verification in Guatemala acting on a recommendation by the Secretary-General that such a mission could make a contribution to a persisting pattern of human rights abuse. MINUGUA was a civilian and humanitarian peacekeeping mission established in 1997 for the conflict in Guatemala. 

Australia provided one peacekeeper to the mission to monitor the ceasefire between the Guatemalan Government and the revolutionary force – Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca. The mission terminated in May 1997. 

Deployed: 1 ADF Observer. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 19 July 2006: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘GUATEMALA’ ; MINUGUA Medal. 

 
ASM with Clasp 'GUATEMALA'

ASM with Clasp ‘GUATEMALA’

MINUGUA Medal

MINUGUA Medal

PAPUA NEW GUINEA & WEST IRIAN DROUGHT RELIEF Operation PLES DRAI 

Australia: September 1997 – May 1998 

Area of Operations: Papua New Guinea and West Irian (Indonesia). 

Deployed: Approx 200 RAAF and Army personnel 

This was a combined ADF / PNGDF operation to support drought relief operations in PNG following disastrous droughts. Australia contributed a Logistical force (including helicopters) to provide food, water and medical relief to thousands of people in PNG and West Irian. 

Awards: Ineligible.
Note: The Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal (HOSM) is a non-Defence award that is awarded to members of recognised charitable or humanitarian groups who provide humanitarian service in designated areas of the world. The HOSM is administered by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (PM&C). Previous decisions on natural disaster operations, such as those in Papua New Guinea with Operations PLES DRAI and SHADDOCK, leave service on those operations ineligible.

TRUCE MONITORING & PEACE MONITORING GROUP – BOUGAINVILLE 

Operation BEL-ISI & Operation BEL-ISI II 

Australia: 20 November 1997 to 26 August 2003 

AO: Bougainville, Buka Islands and the Papua New Guinea territorial waters surrounding those islands 

Background: The 1989-1998 rebellion on Bougainville, which led to a declaration of “independence” by guerrilla leader Francis Ona in 1993, caused between 5000 and 20,000 deaths through war with the mainland (PNG) army and police, internal civil war, starvation, disease and childbirth fatalities. 

Operation Bel-ISI is the Pacific Nations Truce and Peace Monitoring between the Bougainvillean Guerrillas (BRA) and the PNG Defence Force in the disputed territory of Bougainville. The force comprised of Fiji, Vanuatu (“Ni Vans”), Tongan, Australian, New Zealand, and Solomon Islander Defence Forces. 

April 30 1998, marked the transition from the New Zealand led Truce Monitoring Group (TMG), OP BEL ISI (I), to the Australian led Peace Monitoring Group (PMG) and the beginning of OP BEL ISI (II). The transition occurred following the signing of the Ceasefire Agreement in the Arawa Township earlier that day. The PMG currently consists of about 100 people from Australia, NZ, Fiji and Vanuatu. 

The operation consisted of approx 70 ADF logistical staff, including the HQ Peace Monitoring Group. Australian Defence Civilians have also deployed in the capacity of Observers. Electoral Commission personnel also deployed. 

The PMG successfully brokered an agreement between the PNG and Bougainville in which Bougainvilleans control their public service, courts, police, correctional institutions, taxation and foreign aid initiatives. 

Deployed: 250 Logistics, communications, HQ Staff and Monitors. Total Strength estimated to be 2,400 personnel. The Australian Contingent for OP BEL ISI II was restricted to 70 ADF personnel. 

Died: (1) Lance Corporal Shawn Lewis, 145 Signals Squadron (RAEME), Drowning. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 23 October 2003: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘BOUGAINVILLE’.

 
ASM with Clasp 'BOUGANVILE'

ASM with Clasp ‘BOUGANVILE’

 
MULTINATIONAL MILITARY DEPLOYMENT KUWAIT

Operation POLLARD 

Australia: 15 Feb 1998 – 1 October 2001. 

AO: All sea, airspace and land North and West from 5 deg 00 min S 68 deg 00 min E and encompassing the outer boundaries of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Egypt, Sudan and Kenya. 

As tensions grew high between Saddam Hussein and American President Bill Clinton during the simmering Gulf Conflict, the Australian Government was requested to provide military assistance to the United States-led Coalition Force in the Middle East. 

Deployed: 1 x B707 Air Refuellers and crews, SAS Squadron, one ADF liaison officer. Total approx 200. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 17 September 2001: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards & Qualifying Periods: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ’. Alloted 7 days/ Assigned 30 days.

 
 
ASM with Clasp 'IRAQ'

ASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ’

 
NATO FORCE IN KOSOVO (KFOR) 

Operations ALLIED FORCE & JOINT GUARDIAN

Australia: 25 Jan 1997 – ongoing (Exchange posted personnel to UK & US forces). 

AO: KOSOVO. 

Background: Following the adoption of the United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1244, General Jackson (European Command), acting on the instructions of the North Atlantic Council, made immediate preparations for the rapid deployment of the security force (Operation Joint Guardian), mandated by the United Nations Security Council.  The first elements entered Kosovo on 12 June 1999. As agreed in the Military Technical Agreement, the deployment of the security force – KFOR – was synchronized with the departure of Serb security forces from Kosovo. By 20 June 1999, the Serb withdrawal was complete and KFOR was well established in Kosovo. 

At its full strength KFOR comprised some 50,000 personnel as a multinational force under unified command and control with substantial NATO participation. A system of multinational brigades was established with Britain as the lead nation in Multinational Brigade (Centre) (MNB (C)), encompassing Pristina and Podujevo. The British deployed two battalion battle groups, with battle groups from Finland, Norway and Sweden and a small element from the Czech Republic completing the brigade. The remainder of KFOR consisted of MNB(N), led by the French in Mitrovica; MNB (S), led by Germany from Prizren; MNB (E), headed by the USA in the enormous Camp Bondsteel in Urosevac; and MNB (W), under Italian command in Pec. In all, 19 NATO nations and 18 non-NATO countries contributed formed units to KFOR. Individuals from other countries have been occasionally attached to units of these troop-contributing nations, as has been the case for Australians attached to British units since 1999. 

Deployed: The number of Australians deployed at any one time varied from one to four. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 24th August 1999: Non-warlike Service during any period from 15 April 1999 to 3 June 1999 (OPERATION ALLIED FORCE).
Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 24th August 1999: Non-warlike Service during any period on or after 11 June 1999 (OPERATION JOINT GUARDIAN). 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘BALKANS’ ; NATO Medal with Clasp ‘KOSOVO’. 

 
 
ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM ‘1975 – PRESENT’

NATO Medal

NATO Medal

UNITED NATIONS ADVANCE MISSION IN EAST TIMOR (UNAMET)

Operation FABER 

Australia: 19 June – 15 September 1999 

AO: East Timor and the territorial sea of Indonesia adjacent to East Timor. (12NM from low water mark). 

Deployed: 45 Military Liaison Officers (MLO) and over 250 officers Australian Federal Police (AFP) by 2000. 

History: The former Portuguese colony known as Portuguese Timor was occupied by Indonesia from 1975. In 1999, after 25 years of Indonesian rule, Indonesia agreed to a United Nations sponsored referendum for independence shortly after Indonesia’s first democratic elections. 

The United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) was established to organise and conduct the vote at the end of August 1999. The Security Council Resolution of 11 June 1999 authorised ‘the deployment within UNAMET of up to 280 civilian police officers to act as advisers to the Indonesian Police in the discharge of their duties and, at the time of the consultation, to supervise the escort of ballot papers and boxes to and from the polling sites’. The resolution also authorised ‘the deployment within UNAMET of 50 military liaison officers to maintain contact with the Indonesian Armed Forces in order to allow the Secretary-General to discharge his responsibilities under the General Agreement and the Security Agreement’. 

UNAMET saw the referendum of the East Timorese people to vote for Independence or Integration into Indonesia. UNAMET was to see the peaceful transition of a UN monitored election. The Election result was an overwhelming 4 to 1 vote for Independence from Indonesia – the first free and fair elections the people of East Timor had ever had. However, in the lead up to the election and once the result was declared, the Indonesian Military and pro-Indonesian militias including the Aitarak Militia, launched a campaign of violence, rape, murder, looting and arson throughout the country. Many East Timorese people were killed and almost half a million were displaced from their homes. 

It was necessary for the UN to temporarily abandon the UNAMET mission. Most Australian Military Liaison Officers and Police personnel were recalled back to Australia. 

As the violence remained uncontrolled, Indonesia agreed to the deployment of a multinational peacekeeping force. A United Nations Security Council resolution authorised the International Force in East Timor (INTERFET) which was the Australian Government initiative to re-install law and order to East Timor. Subsequently the Australian led INTERFET force began arriving in East Timor from 16 September 1999. 

VEA: Schedule 3 (9 Jun – 15 September 1999), Schedule 2 (from 16 September 1999). 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 9 November 1999: Non-warlike Service – member of the ADF assigned for service during any period 19 June 1999 to 15 September 1999 with OPERATION FABER. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 21 June 2000: Warlike Service member of the ADF on OPERATION FABER during the period 16 September 1999 to 23 February 2000. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’ ; Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’ ; UNAMET Medal. 

 
 
AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’

ASM with Clasp 'EAST TIMOR'

ASM with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’

UNMISET Medal

UNMISET Medal

 

 

INTERNATIONAL FORCE IN EAST TIMOR (INTERFET) 

Operation SPITFIRE, Operation STABILISE, Operation WARDEN 

Australia: 6 September 1999 – 18 February 2000. 

INTERFET

INTERFET



AO: Indonesia, Darwin Australia and East Timor (including Oecusse district in the western part of the island of Timor). 

History: Australia’s 1999 East Timor peace enforcement (peacemaking) operation dwarfed previous peacekeeping efforts as the new nation achieved independence from Indonesia. The former Portuguese colony was occupied by Indonesia from 1975. In 1999, after 25 years of Indonesian rule, Indonesia agreed to a United Nations sponsored referendum for independence, shortly after Indonesia’s first democratic elections. 

The United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) was established to organise and conduct the vote at the end of August 1999, which resulted in an overwhelming vote in favour of independence. In the lead up to the election and once the result was declared, pro-Indonesian militias launched a campaign of violence, rape, murder, looting and arson throughout the country. Many East Timorese were killed and almost half a million were displaced from their homes. 

During the period 6-19 September 1999, ADF Special operations, under Operation SPITFIRE, managed the evacuation of 2475 Australian and other nominated nationals from East Timor. 

As the violence remained uncontrolled, Indonesia agreed to the deployment of a multinational peacekeeping force. A United Nations Security Council resolution authorised the International Force in East Timor (INTERFET) which was the Australian Government initiative to re-install law and order to East Timor. 

INTERFET, with the role of restoring peace and security, protecting and supporting UNAMET, and facilitating humanitarian assistance operations, began arriving on September 16, 1999. INTERFET was the largest deployment of Australian Troops since the Second World War and was the first time Australia was a central participant in forming and leading an international coalition force. At the peak of INTERFET, the coalition of 23 troop-contributing countries provided more than 11,000 personnel. 

Then Major General Peter Cosgrove was the force commander of INTERFET in what was a politically and militarily tense atmosphere. The first five aircraft to land in Dili carried Special Forces and the lead elements of the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR), who secured the airport along with British forces and established contact with the Indonesian military. The main 3 RAR Group included soldiers from 108 Field Battery and B Squadron and the 3rd /4th Cavalry Regiment, who left Darwin on HMAS Jervis Bay and HMAS Tobruk. In preparation for the naval elements, troops from the 2nd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (2 RAR) deployed by air and secured the port at Dili. In all, 33 sorties by C-130 Hercules from Australia, the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand deployed 1500 troops in the first 24 hours. By the second day almost 3000 troops were in country. 

The 5/7th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (5/7 RAR) Battalion Group including 2nd Field Troop (Mechanized) from 1st Combat Engineer Regiment, Communications and Information Systems Detachments from 1st Combat Signals Regiment, a forty man Civil-Military Liaison Group from 103rd Medium Battery and a 2nd line logistic Company from 1st Combat Service Support Battalion, deployed to Dili by a combination of C130 sorties, RAN and civilian shipping over the period 7 to 20 Oct 99. The Battalion Group relieved both 2 and 3 RAR of their AOs centred on the capital by 11 Oct 99, with the enhanced mobility, communications, firepower and protection allowing the Battalion Group to undertake wider security tasks than the two light battalions. 

The intensity of military operations in East Timor continued and after the 30-day mark, Major General Cosgrove said nearly 80 per cent of the country was returned to a state of peace and stability, which allowed most East Timorese to get on with their lives. 

On 3 Jan 00 the 5/7 RAR Battalion Group assumed responsibility from 2 RAR for the northern sector of the border region. With the draw down of Australian troop commitments in Jan/Feb, the 5/7 RAR Battalion Group remained in position and worked to Commander SECTOR WEST based in Suai which had previously been the 3rd Brigade HQ. The border region lent itself to hostile activity by the militias, now predominantly based in West Timor. Incursions across the border by these groups continued throughout the following months. 

On 21 Feb 00, the 5/7 RAR Battalion Group donned ‘blue berets’ to become the first Australian infantry battalion to be permanently assigned to a UN force since the Korean War. After a memorable Anzac Day service the 5/7th Battalion handed over to 6th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment (6 RAR) who became AUSBATT II. 

INTERFET completed its tasks on 23 February 2000, with a formal transfer of military command and control responsibility to the Headquarters of the UN Peacekeeping Force, part of UNTAET. 

Deployed: The size of Australia’s military deployment fell from a peak of 5700 at the end of November 1999 to approximately 1600 in 2001-2002. Australian troops were gradually drawn down over several years after 2000, however major rioting in Dili in May 2006 prompted more Australian Defence Force members to be deployed to East Timor as part of Operation ASTUTE. 

DOI: 1 Lance Corporal Russell Eisenhuth, RACT, on 17th of January 2000. 

Wounded: Approx 10 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 2 November 1999: Warlike Service – member of the ADF assigned for service during any period 6 September 1999 to 19 September 1999 with OPERATION SPITFIRE.
Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 21 June 2000: Warlike Service – member of the ADF on OPERATION STABILISE during the period 16 September 1999 to 23 February 2000.
Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 21 June 2000: Warlike Service – member of the ADF on OPERATION WARDEN during the period 16 September 1999 to 10 April 2000. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’ ; INTERFET Medal – INTERFET-S159-00-Letters-Patent.pdf. MUC awarded to the Army’s 3rd Special Air Service Squadron, 2nd Airfield Defence Guard (RAAF), and RAN Task Unit 645.1.1 . 

 
 
AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’

INTERFET Medal

INTERFET Medal

Meritorious Unit Citation

Meritorious Unit Citation

 

 

2000 - Present
UNITED NATIONS TRANSITIONAL AUTHORITY IN EAST TIMOR (UNTAET) 

 Operation TANAGER 

Australia: 20 February 2000 to 19 May 2002 

AO: East Timor (including Oecusse district in the western part of the island of Timor). 

After INTERFET completed its tasks on 23 February 2000, military command and control responsibilities were formally transferred to the Headquarters of the UN Peacekeeping Force (PKF) as part of the United Nations Transitional Authority in East Timor (UNTAET). 

Deployed: Australia supported the UN peacekeeping operation with between 1500 and 2000 personnel on a 4 – 6 month posting cycle. Estimated Total of 7,500 personnel. 

Australia contributed an Infantry Battalion Group force to the western border region (Sector West) of East Timor to prevent insurgency operations by the Aitarak Militia forces and under command UN PKF Headquarters. Australia also contributed a Communications Management Team working to the PKF HQ providing commercial standard telecommunications, telephone, data and communications infrastructure, installations and management. Additionally deployed were landing craft, Black Hawks, an Australian National Command Element, RAAF and RAN Support and Logistical units. 

Australia remained the largest contributor of personnel to the peacekeeping mission. Australian troops were gradually drawn down over several years after 2000, however major rioting in Dili in May 2006 prompted more Australian Defence Force members to be deployed to East Timor as part of Operation ASTUTE. 

Killed: Corporal Stuart Jones, 2 Cavalry Regiment, RAAC, August 2000. 

Wounded: Approx 7 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 1st April 2004: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’ ; UNTAET Medal. MUC awarded to the 10th Force Support Battalion (10FSB). 

AASM1988EastTimor

AASM ‘EAST TIMOR’

MUC (10FSB)

MUC (10FSB)

CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL PEACE MONITORING TEAM – SOLOMON ISLANDS 

Operations PLUMBOB & Operation TREK 

Australia: 4 November 2000 – Feb 2003. 

AO: Solomon Islands and its Territorial Sea. 

Deployed: RAN Fleet Unit & Support staff. HMA Ships Manoora, Kanimbla, Tobruk (SAE), Darwin, Canberra; 1RAR Bn Group. Estimated at 1200 ADF & 66 AFP. 

An International Peace Monitoring Team (IPMT) was established of which the ADF provided approx 6 pers (communicators and Special Forces). The remainder of the IPMT were civilians, drawn mainly from Australia, NZ and a small number from other Pacific countries. 

The Townsville Peace Accord resulted in the parties centralising weapons. The ADF provided the containers and using mainly HMAS Manoora choppers, positioned them where required. 

HMAS Manoora deployed to the Solomon Island three times (incl Op Plumbob). The other ships mentioned had one deployment. They all acted as a base for holding talks. 

In order to assist the Solomon Islands government with an internal factional struggle, Australia committed a Logistics support team and HMAS Kanimbla to monitor the cease-fire to the civilian war. The RAN vessels provided for Op Trek were used as the peace agreement platform, with New Zealand Naval support. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 23rd November 2000: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SOLOMON IS’.

ASM1988

ASM1988

UNITED NATIONS MISSION IN SIERRA LEONE (UNAMSIL)
UNAMSIL

UNAMSIL

Operation HUSKY 

Australia: 15 January 2001 – 28 February 2003 

AO: Sierra Leone – Western Africa. 

Background: On October 22, 1999, the UN Security Council authorised the establishment of UNAMSIL, a new and much larger mission than its’ predecessor UNOMSIL, with a maximum of 6000 military personnel, including 260 military observers, to assist the Government and the parties in carrying out provisions of the Lome peace agreement. On February 7, 2000, the Security Council decided to revise the mandate of UNAMSIL. It decided to expand the military component to a maximum of 11,100 military personnel, including the 260 military observers already deployed. The Council also authorised increases in the civil affairs, civilian police, administrative and technical components of UNAMSIL. The Security Council again increased the authorised strength of UNAMSIL, to 13,000 military personnel, including the 260 military observers by its resolution 1299 of May 19, 2000. On March 30, 2001, a further increase was authorised to 17,500 military personnel, including the 260 military observers. 

In January 2001, Australia responded to a British request for advisers to assist the International Military Advisory Training Team mission in Sierra Leone (IMATT–SL) in its task of rebuilding the newly raised Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) in West Africa. Codenamed Operation Husky, the Australian commitment lasted for two years and consisted of an infantry captain and an infantry major deployed to act as a battalion and brigade adviser respectively. Each contingent deployed for a six-month tour of duty until the Australian mission concluded in 2003. 

Deployed: 2 Army Officers. (Total: 17 ADF personnel) 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 22 March 2007: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘SIERRA LEONE’ ; UNAMSIL Medal (if served in the UN forces with UK forces). 

AASM1988

AASM1988

UNAMSIL Medal

UNAMSIL Medal

UNITED NATIONS MISSION IN ETHIOPIA & ERITREA (UNMEE)

Operation POMELO 

Australia: 15 January 2001 – 21 February 2005 

AO: Ethiopia and Eritrea 

Deployed: 2 Army Observers (ADF officers) deployed at any one time. Total: 16 

In June 2000, after two years of fighting in a border dispute, Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a cessation of hostilities agreement following proximity talks led by Algeria and the Organisation of African Unity. In July, the Security Council set up United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea to maintain liaison with the parties and establish the mechanism for verifying the ceasefire. 

In September 2000, the Council authorised deployment within UNMEE of up to 4,200 military personnel. The mission involved the monitoring of the cessation of hostilities in the region, troop deployments and the temporary security zone between Ethiopia and Eritrea. The mission also provided assistance to the Ethiopian and Eritrean Border Commission talks on marking the international border. 

Australian Defence Force personnel were deployed to support the UNMEE in an observer capacity (United Nations Military Observer (UNMO). They worked in UNMEE Force Headquarters positions undertaking staff functions that included support engineering, military de-mining planning, mapping and geo-spatial advice, force training advice and training mission personnel. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 28 February 2001: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘ETHIOPIA/ERITREA’ ; UNMEE Medal. 

 

ASM with Clasp ‘ETHIOPIA/ERITREA’

ASM with Clasp ‘ETHIOPIA/ERITREA’

UNMEE Medal

UNMEE Medal

AUSTRALIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY ASSISTANCE FORCE (ISAF)
OpSLIPPERpatch

OpSLIPPERpatch

Operation SLIPPER and Operation BASTILLE 

Australia: 11 October 2001 – 31 December 2014 

Area of Operations: Afghanistan, Pakistan, The Persian Gulf, Kuwait, Iraq and Diego Garcia. 

Background: After the Terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre, New York, which took almost 5000 civilian and military lives on the 11th of September, 2001, the U.S. President declared war on Terrorists and countries that house and train terrorists. The 11th of September attack was suspected to be the long-term plan of attack by Osama Bin Laden, who was a Saudi Arabian Engineer living in exile in Afghanistan and worked closely with the Al-Queda extremist Islamic Group. The Taliban (Afghan extremist Islamic group) considered Bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda group as “Guests” in their country. After US pressure on the President of Pakistan, the Taliban were given a deadline to surrender Bin Laden or face the consequences. The Taliban subsequently refused. US, British, German and Australian (SASR) Special Forces Teams were then inserted into Afghanistan and were supported by the biggest air bombing campaign the world had seen. Bin Laden escaped. However, he was eventually tracked down and killed on May 2, 2011 by U.S. forces in a custom-built compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan. 

ISAF: The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was created in accordance with the Bonn Conference in December 2001. Afghan opposition leaders attending the conference began the process of reconstructing their country by setting up a new government structure, namely the Afghan Transitional Authority. The concept of a UN-mandated international force to assist the newly established Afghan Transitional Authority was also launched at this occasion to create a secure environment in and around Kabul and support the reconstruction of Afghanistan. These agreements paved the way for the creation of a three-way partnership between the Afghan Transitional Authority, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) – see Op PALATE and Op PALATE II – and ISAF. 

On 11 August 2003 NATO assumed leadership of the ISAF operation. The Alliance became responsible for the command, coordination and planning of the force, including the provision of a force commander and headquarters on the ground in Afghanistan. This new leadership overcame the problem of a continual search to find new nations to lead the mission and the difficulties of setting up a new headquarters every six months in a complex environment. A continuing NATO headquarters also enabled small countries, less likely to take over leadership responsibility, to play a strong role within a multinational headquarters. 

ISAF’s mandate was initially limited to providing security in and around Kabul. In October 2003, the United Nations extended ISAF’s mandate to cover the whole of Afghanistan (UNSCR 1510), paving the way for an expansion of the mission across the country. In support of the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, ISAF then conducted operations in Afghanistan to reduce the capability and will of the insurgency, support the growth in capacity and capability of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), and facilitate improvements in governance and socio-economic development in order to provide a secure environment for sustainable stability that is observable to the population. On 01 January 2015 the ISAF mission ended and transitioned to the NATO-led Resolute Support mission. More information can be found here: www.rs.nato.int/ 

Operation Bastille: (January 2003 – March 2003) was an operation conducted within Operation Slipper. Bastille was the codename for the operation to deploy force elements and prepare for possible combat operations in Iraq. The preparation supported the United Nations disarmament efforts by contributing to the pressure on Iraq to comply with its international obligations to end its program of weapons of mass destruction. When the Australian Defence Force commenced the offensive operations against Iraq as part of the coalition led by the United States, Operation Bastille ceased to be a part of Operation Slipper and became Operation Falconer. 

DeployedADF: Over 30,000 ADF personnel were deployed at least once since 2001. At its peak over 1560 in Afghanistan + approx 830 ADF personnel were deployed in the Middle East: Oruzgan and Kabul HQ; Mentoring Taskforce; Provincial Reconstruction Team; Special Ops Task Group; Chinook Helo Group; HMA Ships; 4 F/A18 Hornets; 2 B707-338C Tankers (Refuellers); 2 RAAF P3C Orion Maritime Patrol Aircraft; Heron Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Detachment (passive); Communications and Information Systems detachments; HQ & Force Liaison staff and Logistics personnel. 

Our contribution has included an annual average of 1,550 ADF personnel deployed within Afghanistan. These numbers varied depending on operational requirements and shifting seasonal conditions. Within Afghanistan Australia’s roles included disrupting insurgent operations and supply routes; provincial reconstruction; training, mentoring and advising the Afghan National Security Forces; and building capacity in the Afghan Government. 

Australia maintained a permanent presence in Uruzgan province Afghanistan since 2005 and assumed leadership of CT-U from the US in October 2012 to play a greater role in managing the transition to Afghan security control in Uruzgan. In this time the Afghans contained the insurgency and built on the gains of preceding years. Multi-National Base – Tarin Kot developed extensive infrastructure since 2005 including a sealed airfield and new civilian terminal and was home to nearly 10,000 people at the height of the campaign. The base was transferred to various Afghan Government ministries in 2013. Following the completion of Australia’s mission in Uruzgan, Australia shifted to a nationally-oriented mission to provide ongoing training and advisory support for the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). 

Approximately 800 personnel provided support from locations within the broader Middle East Area of Operations (MEAO), including our maritime commitment. Of that, approximately 400 ADF personnel were deployed within Afghanistan. In 2014, ADF personnel were engaged in Afghanistan through training and advising the Afghan National Security Forces in Kabul and Kandahar. Through to the end of 2014, Australia was providing instructors, advisors and support staff to the UK-led Afghan National Army Officer Academy in Kabul, which included a force protection platoon. We had advisor and support staff working with the Australian-led Afghan National Army 205 Corps Coalition Advisory Team in Kandahar. This commitment provided valuable advice within the Afghan National Army 205 Corps senior leadership. We also supported logistics training with the Logistics Training and Advisory Team in Kabul and we committed a small number of Special Forces and other Army personnel to training and advising the General Directorate of Police Special Units. In addition, the Royal Australian Air Force Heron Remotely Piloted Aircraft deployment provided Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance support to enhance security in Regional Command – South during the lead up to, and conduct of, the elections. 

Throughout 2014 Australia maintained its cadre of embedded personnel at ISAF Joint Command and Regional Command – South. On 1 July 2014, following the end of Australia’s mission in Uruzgan province and the significant draw down in troop numbers, Op SLIPPER split into three separate operations to more accurately reflect the nature of Australia’s military contribution. Under the operational changes, the ADF’s commitment in Afghanistan continued under Op HIGHROAD. The contribution to maritime security operations in the MEAO and counter-piracy in the Gulf of Aden will be conducted under Op MANITOU. Supporting operations in neighbouring Gulf States will be conducted under Op ACCORDION. 

AFP: Initially 16 AFP members deployed to Afghanistan to help to develop the core policing abilities among local police officers in Afghanistan. The AFP also provided support to the Afghan Threat Finance Cell (ATFC) to assist the Afghan National Police (ANP) in identifying persons involved in illicit narcotics and to support ANP investigations and prosecutions through the Afghan Criminal Justice system. The AFP’s involvement to the ATFC was discontinued in April 2010 in line with the AFP’s increased focus on training and developing the ANP in Uruzgan Province. It then refocused its efforts around the provincial training centre in Tarin Kowt to provide training and mentoring to the ANP. The AFP’s role in Afghanistan expanded to 28 AFP members to coordinate training operations for the ANP, influencing and shaping that policing environment, and also profiling serious criminality within the Oruzgan province. AFP members also deployed to Kabul and Kandahar in counter narcotics, specialist intelligence and advisory roles countering serious criminality through engagement in the International Operations Coordination Centre (IOCC) and training the Afghan Major Crime Task Force. The primary objective of the AFP mission to Afghanistan, Operation Illuminate, was to train, develop and mentor ANP in Uruzgan Province so that they, as members of the ANSF, could assume responsibility for national security. 

Killed: 41 
Wounded: > 260 ADF personnel. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 4 May 2014: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘ICAT’ – 1 day/1 sortie Visitors 30 days/30 sorties only for the period 11 Oct 2001 – 17 Mar 2003, Note: service within parts of Iraq may provide qualification for both clasp ICAT and IRAQ 2003 ; Afghanistan Medal (Afghanistan-Medal-Instrument-2015.pdf). 

 

AASM with Clasp 'ICAT'

AASM with Clasp ‘ICAT’

Afghanistan Medal

Afghanistan Medal

UNITED NATIONS MISSION IN SUPPORT OF EAST TIMOR (UNMISET)

Operation CITADEL / Operation SPIRE 

Australia: Operation CITADEL – 20 May 2002 to 19 May 2004 / Operation Spire – 20 May 2004 to 25 June 2005 

AO: East Timor and the territorial sea of East Timor. 

The UN Mission in Support of East Timor (UNMISET) was established by UN resolution 1272/99 on 25 October 2000 and implemented on East Timor’s Independence Day, 20 May 2002. Operation Citadel was established to replace Operation Tanager and to consolidate the achievements of the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) following East Timor’s independence. Operation Citadel involved the post-independence deployment of Australian combat battalion groups (Ausbatt) to support the UN Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) Peacekeeping Force. 

After the original UN mandate expired on 20 May 2004, the United Nations Security Council on 14 May 2004 adopted a resolution to extend the UNMISET mandate for six months, with a view to subsequently extending it further for a final period of six months, until 20 May 2005. The Australian Government agreed to offer further support and committed about 100 ADF personnel to the revised UN Peacekeeping Force under Operation SPIRE. They undertook a range of roles supporting the UN, mainly performing specialist logistics, engineering, communications, monitoring and military liaison tasks. 

Deployed: Australian Combined Battle Group including Infantry, Armour, Engineers, Signals, Military Geo-spatial Information det, Health Supplementation Team, Logistics, Military Police and military working dogs ; Peacekeeping Force Headquarters in Dili ; three Blackhawk helicopters based at Moleana ; United Nations Military Observers throughout Timor-Leste ; Australian National Command Element ; RAAF and RAN Support.
Estimated Total of 3,200 personnel. 

Operation CITADEL Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 16 September 2003: Warlike Service as a member of the ADF allotted for service during the period 20 May 2002 to 17 August 2003. 

Operation SPIRE Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 8 December 2005: Non-warlike Service as a member of the ADF assigned for service on Operation SPIRE on or after 20 May 2004. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’ to 17 Aug 2003 ; Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’ from 18 August 03 ; UNMISET Medal. 

AASM with Clasp 'CAMBODIA'

AASM with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’

ASM with Clasp 'EAST TIMOR'

ASM with Clasp ‘EAST TIMOR’

UNMISET Medal

UNMISET Medal

ADF CONTRIBUTION IN SUPPORT OF US-LED MILITARY OPERATIONS TO REMOVE THE THREAT OF IRAQI WMD

Operation FALCONER 

Australia: 18 March 2003 to 22 July 2003 

Area of Operations: The Specified Area bounded by the geographical coordinates: 38 00N 68 00E ; 38 00N 32 00E ; 10 00N 32 00E ; 10 00N 68 00E . 

Australia provided one of the four most substantial combat force contingents during the 2003 invasion of Iraq under the operational codename Operation Falconer. Part of its contingent were among the first forces to enter Iraq after the official “execute” order. The initial Australian force consisted of three Royal Australian Navy ships, 500 special forces soldiers, P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft, C-130 Hercules transport aircraft and No. 75 Squadron RAAF (which included 14 F/A-18 Hornet fighters) which was the first combat deployment of Australian aircraft since the Vietnam War. Combat forces committed to Operation Falconer for the 2003 Invasion were withdrawn during 2003. 

The Australian force made an important though limited contribution to Coalition operations during the invasion of Iraq. The Australian contribution was also geographically dispersed, with the Australian forces forming part of larger US and British units rather than a concentrated Australian unit. No Australian personnel were killed or taken prisoner during the war.

Deployed: Approximately 2,000 personnel including 2 RAN Frigates with a single Seahawk helicopter each, one Amphibious Warfare ship carrying 350 crew and soldiers, including embarked Australian Army LCM-8 landing craft and an anti-aircraft contingent, a Sea King helicopter and a bomb disposal team; Clearance Diving Team Three; Royal Australian Air Force Squadron operating 14 F/A-18 Hornet fighter jets together with 250 command, coordination, support and aircrew personnel; Three C-130H Hercules transport aircraft and 150 support personnel; Two AP-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft and 150 support personnel; Australian Army – 500-strong special forces task group consisting of: Forward Command Element; Special Forces Task Group attached to Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-West (CJSOTF-W)including: 1 Squadron Group (SASR), Platoon (+), Royal Australian Regiment (Commando), D Troop Incident Response Regiment, Combat Service Support Group; 3 CH-47 Chinooks and support elements; 2 LCM-8 Landing Craft; and about 60 HQ personnel. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 16 September 2003: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’ – 1 day/1 sortie ; Iraq Medal (Iraq-Medal-S154-09-Determination.pdf).

 

AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’

Iraq Medal

Iraq Medal

AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE CONTRIBUTION TO THE UN ASSISTANCE MISSION IN AFGHANISTAN (UNAMA)

UNAMAlogo

Operation PALATE & Operation PALATE II 

Australia: Op PALATE: 18 Apr 2003 – 5 Jul 2004 ; Op PALATE II: 26 Jun 2005 – ongoing 

Area of Operations: Afghanistan, including Afghanistan’s land territory, internal waters and superjacent airspace. 

Background: ISAF was created in accordance with the Bonn Conference in December 2001. Afghan opposition leaders attending the conference began the process of reconstructing their country by setting up a new government structure, namely the Afghan Transitional Authority. The concept of a UN-mandated international force to assist the newly established Afghan Transitional Authority was also launched at this occasion to create a secure environment in and around Kabul and support the reconstruction of Afghanistan. These agreements paved the way for the creation of a three-way partnership between the Afghan Transitional Authority, the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) and ISAF. On 11 August 2003 NATO assumed leadership of the ISAF operation. Australia’s military contribution to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan was deployed under Op SLIPPER. 

AustraliaOp PALATE was, and Op PALATE II is now the ADF contribution to the United Nations Assistance Mission to Afghanistan (UNAMA) as part of Australia’s commitment to the International Coalition Against Terror (ICAT) along with Op Slipper. UNAMA is a political mission which was established on 28 March 2002 by UN Security Council Resolution 1401 to promote reconciliation and rapprochement, and manage humanitarian relief, recovery, and reconstruction in Afghanistan. 

Deployed: Up to two Australian Army Officers served as military advisers within the UNAMA Military Adviser Unit under Op PALATE. In March 2014 the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2145 (2014), renewing UNAMA’s mandate and set out the scope and range of activities it must undertake as Afghanistan continues its political and security transition. Five Australian Defence Force Officers are now serving within the UNAMA Military Adviser Unit, currently based out of Kabul and Jalalabad, their duties include liaising with all military forces throughout Afghanistan on behalf of UNAMA. 

Operation PALATE Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 31 October 2005: Warlike Service. 

Operation PALATE II Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 8 December 2005: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘ICAT’ ; Afghanistan Medal (Afghanistan-Medal-Instrument-2015.pdf). 

 

AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’

Iraq Medal

Iraq Medal

AUSTRALIAN MILITARY CONTRIBUTION TO US-LED MULTINATIONAL FORCE TO SECURE & STABILISE IRAQ

Operation CATALYST 

Australia: 16 July 2003 – 31 July 2009 

Area of Operations: The total land areas, territorial waters, internal waterways and superjacent airspace boundaries of Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia north of 23 degrees North latitude, the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz. 

Op Catalyst, the successor to Op Falconer and Op Bastille (under Op Slipper), began in July 2003. It was the ADF’s contribution to the US-led Multinational Force effort to develop a secure and stable environment in Iraq, to assist national recovery programs and facilitate the transition to Iraqi self-government. The Government adjusted Australia’s military commitment to Iraq after the transition from offensive combat operations to stabilisation and recovery operations. This role then developed into a key security and training role enabling the people of Iraq to take responsibility for their own security. Australian personnel were responsible for training approximately 36,000 members of the Iraqi Army, Navy and Marines, including the conduct of specialist training in logistics support, counter-insurgency operations and maritime interception and interdiction operations in protecting Iraq’s vital offshore resources so critical to its economic future. 

Australian forces also had the honour of being involved in the first transfer of an Iraqi province, Al-Muthanna, to the provincial security control of Iraqi forces. 

Deployed: Approximately 1000 Servicemen and women from all three services were first deployed to Iraq in 2003 in a range of combat and combat support roles. By February 2007, the number of personnel assigned to Op Catalyst had been raised to 1,575 personnel mainly through increased security and training capabilities. 

In total more than 20000 ADF personnel through: Al Muthanna province Battle Group; Dhi Qar province Battle Group; RAN led Iraqi Coastal Defence Force Training Team; RAN Major Fleet Units and embarked flights; AATT – Iraq; combined Communications, Information Systems tactical and Logistics elements; Medical elements; a Joint Task Force Headquarters; personnel embedded in various coalition headquarters; Task Force 158 Fleet Battle Staff; Coalition Air Operations Command personnel; a RAAF P3-C Orion detachment; a RAAF C-130 Hercules detachment; a combat support element providing Air Traffic Control; and Defence civilian advisers in the Iraqi Ministry of Defence. 

Killed: 2 – WO2 David Nary, SASR, RAINF, 6 November 2005; PTE Jacob Kovco, 3 RAR (Para), RAINF, 21 April 2006 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 12 February 2010: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’ – 1 day/1 sortie ; Iraq Medal (Iraq-Medal-S154-09-Determination.pdf). 

 

AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’

Iraq Medal

Iraq Medal

THE ADF CONTRIBUTION TO THE AUSTRALIAN-LED REGIONAL ASSISTANCE MISSION TO THE SOLOMON ISLANDS (RAMSI).

Operation ANODE 

Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI) was an Australian-led peacekeeping mission that included assistance from 15 nations and supported the rebuilding of peace and stability in the Solomon Islands. RAMSI succeeded the International Peace Monitoring Team (IPMT), aka Operation PLUMBOB, to the Solomon Islands. RAMSI’s assistance was known as Operation HELPEM FREN (Pidgin English for ‘Helping Friend’). RAMSI officially closed on 30 June 2017 after nearly 14 years of assistance provided to the Solomon Islands Government. 

In December 2004, Australian Protective Service Officer Adam Dunning was shot and killed in an ambush near Honiara – and, in March 2005, Australian Army Private Jamie Clarke died after falling into a cave while searching for weapons caches in Central Guadalcanal. More than 25 Participating Police Force personnel were also injured in riots in April 2006. 

RAMSI’s mission was to assist the Government of Solomon Islands in the maintenance of security, law and justice, economic governance and improving the machinery of government. After a successful 10-year ADF commitment, RAMSI transitioned to a policing-only mission in July 2013, working in partnership with the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force to progress the organisation into a modern, effective and independent police force with the confidence and support of the community. Australia lead the Mission and contributed ninety-five per cent of its funding. More information on the AFP commitment to RAMSI can be found here: www.afp.gov.au/what-we-do/our-work-overseas/international-deployment-group 

AO: The total land areas, territorial waters and superjacent airspace boundaries of the Solomon Islands. 

The ADF contribution to RAMSI (Operation ANODE) : 24 Jul 2003 – 1 August 2013. 

Deployed: A total ADF Deployment strength of approximately 7,270 personnel deployed to OPERATION ANODE since 2003 culminating in over 10 years of military Peacekeeping Service. Of the total number of ADF personnel deploying to RAMSI, approximately 2,112 personnel were Australian Army Reservists. 

The deployment of ADF personnel was at the invitation of the Government of Solomon Islands and aimed to ensure the continued success of RAMSI in improving law and order in Solomon Islands. The Australian-led Combined Task Force known as CTF635 included rotations of Defence Force personnel from New Zealand, Tonga, and Papua New Guinea. 

Since the forming of RAMSI in 2003, the number of Australian troops in support varied depending on the security situation at the time. After the rioting that followed the April 2006 general elections, RAMSI military personnel continued their contribution to maintaining security in Solomon Islands. Force elements of Combined Task Force 635 (CTF635) comprised a Multi-national Headquarters and an Infantry Company with: one platoon from the ADF; one platoon rotating between the New Zealand Defence Force and ADF every eight months; and one platoon rotating between Papua New Guinea and Tonga every four months. The main task for the military component was to respond to incidents beyond the capabilities of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) and RAMSI’s multi-national Participating Police Force (PPF) as well as supporting the PPF by accompanying them on patrols throughout various areas of the Solomon Islands and undertaking other security type tasks as requested. 

The Australian Federal Police (AFP) led the PPF, which comprised of more than 250 personnel from 15 Pacific Island Nations, with Australia providing the largest contingent of personnel. Another Force Element was the Capacity Building of the RISPF and PPF to respond to public order. 

Specialist military staff in RAMSI’s headquarters were also deployed to coordinate the multi-national military effort with the PPF as well as provide communications, information systems and logistics support. 

The ADF support to RAMSI ceased on 1 July 2013. A Defence element remained in the Solomon Islands to prepare military equipment to return to Australia and returned home by 1 August 2013. 

Killed: AFP: 1 [Protective Service Officer Adam Dunning – 22 December 2004]. ADF: 1 [Private Jamie Clarke – 10 March 2005 ]. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 31 July 2003: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SOLOMON IS II’.

ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp ‘SOLOMON IS II’

 
United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

Op AZURE 

Australia: 10 Apr 2005 – 9 July 2011. 

AO: Sudan and its territorial waters and superjacent airspace & South Sudan. 

Background: The latest north-south civil war in Sudan began in 1983, following the breakdown of the 1972 Addis Ababa agreement. For more than two decades, the Government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), the main rebel movement in the south, fought over resources, power, the role of religion in the state, and self-determination. Over two million people died, four million were uprooted and some 600,000 people fled the country as refugees. 

The UN Security Council, by its resolution 1590 (2005) of 24 March 2005, authorised establishment of the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) to support implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM) on 9 January 2005; and to perform certain functions relating to humanitarian assistance, and protection and promotion of human rights. UNMIS provided good offices and political support to the parties, monitored and verified their security arrangements and assisted in a number of other areas, including governance, recovery and development. 

The tasks of UNMIS, among others, were: to support implementation of the CPA; to facilitate and coordinate, within its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons and humanitarian assistance; to assist the parties in the mine action sector; to contribute towards international efforts to protect and promote human rights in the Sudan. 

The referendum to determine the status of Southern Sudan was held on schedule in January 2011, with the overwhelming majority, 98.83% of participants, voting for independence. On 9 July 2011 the Republic of South Sudan became the newest country in the world as the culmination of the six-year peace process. 

The mandate of UNMIS ended on July 9th following the completion of the interim period set up by the Government of Sudan and SPLM during the signing of the CPA on 9 January 2005. In adopting resolution 1996 (2011) on 8 July 2011, the Security Council determined that the situation faced by South Sudan continued to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region and established the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) to consolidate peace and security and to help establish conditions for development. Further information can be found here: www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unmis/ 

Australia’s contribution to UNMIS under Op AZURE transitioned to the new United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) under Op ASLAN. 

Deployed: The ADF contingent of 17 included six military observers and 11 other personnel who specialise in air movements, aviation safety and logistics support. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 8th December 2005: Non-warlike Service. Covered under the provisions of the MRCA 2004 for death, injury or illness. Uganda ‘Peacetime’. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SUDAN’ ; UNMIS Medal 

 

ASM with Clasp 'SUDAN'

ASM with Clasp ‘SUDAN’

UNMIS Medal

UNMIS Medal

ADF CONTRIBUTION TO THE SPECIAL POLITICAL MISSION TO THE UN OFFICE ASSISTING THE TIMOR-LESTE GOVERNMENT

Operation CHIRON / Defence Cooperation Program 

Australia: 20 May 2005 – 11 May 2006 

AO: East Timor. 

Operation CHIRON was the ADF contribution to the UN Special Political Mission to Timor-Leste. 

History: The UN Security Council ceased peacekeeping operations early in 2005 in Timor-Leste. In its’ place a special political mission to the UN office was established to assist the Timor-Leste Government under the ADF’s regional Defence Cooperation Program (DCP). The DCP operated as an Australian regional engagement initiative to assist the development of the Timor-Leste Defence Force through military training, advice and support. 

The ADF contributed to the on-going United Nations (UN) mission through the provision of direct support to the Timorese Defence Force under the ADF’s regional Defence Cooperation Program (DCP). This mission included 15 military officers from contributing nations. 

Deployed: The ADF provided four military advisers to Timor-Leste to support this Program. 

The DCP conducted a range of activities and projects with the Timor-Leste Defence Force, embracing training and advisory roles such as: 

• English language instruction to prepare military personnel for further military education and training opportunities 

• Leadership training, development and skills enhancement for junior military personnel 

• Higher-level staff training in the areas of command, leadership and discipline and military planning, logistics and administration 

• Communications, equipment and management training to support the military command network 

• Senior level secretariat and military advice, including capability and force development, military doctrine, financial, communications and finance and budget coordination advice 

A major Australian contribution under the Program was the $7.5 million construction of a training centre for the Timor-Leste Defence Force at Metinaro. 

MRCA: Military Rehabilitation Compensation Act 2004 – Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘TIMOR-LESTE’ ; UNMIT Medal.  

 

ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp ‘TIMOR-LESTE’

UNMIT Medal

UNMIT Medal

AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE CONTRIBUTION TO STABILISE AND MAINTAIN PEACE IN SUPPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF TIMOR-LESTE
ISF

ISF

Operation ASTUTE 

Australia: 25 May 2006 – 27 March 2013 

AO: East Timor and its territorial waters and superjacent airspace. 

The Australian-led International Stabilisation Force started on 25 May 2006 in response to a request from the Government of Timor-Leste and restored public order and stability. The end of the operation was declared after the Helicopter Point of Disembarkation became the final base to be handed over to the Government of Timor-Leste on 25 March 2013. 

Deployed: As at June 2006, the Australian deployment included about 2,600 ADF personnel deployed in the East Timor area of operations (land, sea and air). Of these, approximately 1,900 ground troops were in Dili, and actively engaged in security operations in the capital, which included the suppression of communal and gang violence. A break up of key Australian forces deployed to East Timor at the height of the operation included: 

• an Amphibious Landing Ship in Dili harbour to provide medical, communications, accommodation and various support facilities as required;
• eight landing craft heavy;
• an Infantry Battalion Group;
• a Commando Company Group;
• eight Australian Army Black Hawk helicopters;
• C-130 Hercules aircraft to transport people and equipment; and
• a detachment of Royal Australian Air Force, Air Field Defence Guards. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 1 June 2006: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘TIMOR-LESTE’ ; Timor-Leste Solidarity Medal (TLSM). 

 

ASM with Clasp 'TIMOR-LESTE'

ASM with Clasp ‘TIMOR-LESTE’

TLSM

TLSM

AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE CONTRIBUTION TO THE UNITED NATIONS INTEGRATED MISSION IN TIMOR-LESTE (UNMIT)

Operation TOWER 

Australia: 17 July 2006 – 31 December 2012 

AO: East Timor and the territorial sea of East Timor. 

History: The UNMIT was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1704 following civil unrest in East Timor on 25 August 2006. UNMIT was the UN’s fifth East Timor mission since 1999 and the third since Independence in 2002. Its objectives were “to support the Government in consolidating stability, enhancing a culture of democratic governance, and facilitating political dialogue among Timorese stakeholders, in their efforts to bring about a process of national reconciliation and to foster social cohesion”. 

With representation from 13 countries, the UNMIT Military Liaison Group conducted daily monitoring of the security environment as well as providing military advice on the restoration and maintenance of security. 

Deployed: The ADF contributed four personnel to UNMIT: three ADF personnel who deployed as military liaison officers in districts outside Dili and one officer with the Headquarters of UNMIT in Dili. ADF members were also employed as staff officers based at UNMIT headquarters in Dili. 49 police 

These and other Military Liaison Officers played a crucial role in security reform, including contributing to the professional development of the East Timor Defence Force (F-FDTL) by designing and delivering Liaison Officer training to F-FDTL officers and Senior Noncommissioned Officers (SNCOs). 

The Prime Minister of East Timor and the senior leadership of the F-FDTL officially recognised the importance of this training, enhancing the ADF’s profile with the F-FDTL as well as positively reinforcing Australia’s contribution to UNMIT. 

MRCA: Military Rehabilitation Compensation Act 2004 – Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘TIMOR-LESTE’ ; UNMIT Medal. 

 

ASM with Clasp 'TIMOR-LESTE'

ASM with Clasp ‘TIMOR-LESTE’

UNMIT Medal

UNMIT Medal

AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE CONTRIBUTION TO THE WHOLE-OF-GOVERNMENT EFFORT TO PROTECT AUSTRALIA’S BORDERS AND OFFSHORE MARITIME INTERESTS

Operation RESOLUTE 

Australia: 17 July 2006 – present 

AO: The Operation RESOLUTE Area of Operations covers approximately 10% of the world’s surface and includes Australia’s Exclusive Economic Zone (AEEZ) which extends up to 200 nautical miles from the Australian mainland and offshore territories. Christmas, Cocos Keeling, Heard, McDonald, Macquarie, Norfolk and Lord Howe Islands also fall within the Operation RESOLUTE boundaries. 

Operation RESOLUTE is the ADF’s contribution to the Whole-of-Government effort to protect Australia’s borders and offshore maritime interests. 

ADF Resources: At any one time, up to 800 ADF personnel at sea, in the air and on the land, are working to protect Australia’s borders and offshore maritime interests. They work alongside personnel from Australian Customs and Border Protection Service and other agencies. In addition, ADF units transiting the area of operations, whilst not assigned to Operation RESOLUTE, also contribute to the overall surveillance and security effort through their presence. 

Threats: The ADF assets protect Australia’s maritime domain from security threats including: Irregular Maritime Arrivals, Maritime terrorism, Piracy, robbery and violence at sea, Compromise to bio-security, Illegal activity in protected areas, Illegal exploitation of natural resources (eg. illegal fishing), Marine pollution, and Prohibited imports and exports. 

Nature of Service: Peacetime. 

Awards: Australian Operational Service Medal (AOSM) – Border Protection (BP) – 30 days/30 sorties. The following operations constitute declared operations for the OSM – BP: Operation CRANBERRY (1 August 1997 – 16 July 2006); Operation DIRK (1 September 1997 – 31 October 1997); Operation STANHOPE (3 February 1998 – 6 March 1998); Operation MISTRAL (1 August 1998 – 30 June 2006); Operation TEEBONE (1 March 2001 – 31 March 2001); Operation CELESTA (1 August 2001 – 31 July 2006); Operation SUTTON (25 January 2002 – 19 February 2002); Operation GEMSBOK (29 August 2003 – 3 October 2003); Operation RELEX (3 September 2001 – 13 March 2002); Operation RELEX II (14 March 2002 – 16 July 2006); and Operation RESOLUTE – commenced 17 July 2006. 

 
AOSMBP

AOSMBP

ADF OPERATION TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF AUSTRALIANS AND APPROVED FOREIGN NATIONALS IN FIJI

Operation QUICKSTEP 

Australia: Fiji 31 October 2006 – 22 December 2006. 

AO: Fiji and its land, internal waters, archipelagic waters, territorial sea and superjacent airspace and the exclusive economic zone of Fiji.

Operation QUICKSTEP was the ADF operation to ensure the safety of Australians and approved foreign nationals in Fiji that saw a taskforce deployed in the South Pacific prepared to evacuate Australians from Fiji following the military coup in that country. 

Deployed: One landing platform amphibious, one Sea King Helicopter, one frigate, one Seahawk Helicopter, one replenishment vessel, one P-3C Orion aircraft, multiple C-130 Hercules and Boeing 707s, four UH-60 helicopters, Evacuation handling teams, an Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) contingent, an Commando Contingent, approximately 50 additional medical staff providing a level 3 surgical capability, and two Defence supplementation staff. 

On 29 November 2006, a S-70 Blackhawk operating from Kanimbla crashed while attempting to land on the ship’s deck, falling overboard and sinking in 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) of water. Nine of the ten crewmembers were rescued, with one, the pilot Captain Mark Bingley, dying from injuries. The tenth crewmember, Trooper Joshua Porter, was lost and declared dead several days later. On 6 March 2007, the Minister for Defence announced that the Defence Maritime Services vessel MV Seahorse Standard had recovered Porter’s body from a depth of approximately 2,900 metres (9,500 ft). 

The predicted coup d’état was carried out with minimal violence and no bloodshed on 4–5 December 2006, with government officials placed under house arrest and Fiji’s parliament dissolved. 

On the forces committed to the possible evacuation commenced return to Australia on 17 December. The feared violence had not occurred, and civilian flights to Fiji continued without disruption during the takeover. The need for a military-backed evacuation force was not evident at that point in time. 

Killed: 2

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 22 November 2007: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘S. PACIFIC 2006’ – 30 days/30 sorties. 

 
ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp ‘S. PACIFIC 2006’

ADF RESPONSE TO ASSIST THE GOVERNMENT OF TONGA WITH THE RESTORATION OF LAW AND ORDER

Operation QUICKSTEP TONGA 

Australia: Tonga 18 November 2006 – 30 November 2006. 

AO: Sovereign territory of Tonga, including the land territory, internal waters, territorial sea, superjacent airspace, and the exclusive economic zone of Tonga and its superjacent airspace. 

Operation QUICKSTEP TONGA was the ADF response to assist the Government of Tonga with the restoration of law and order in Tonga. Around 50 ADF personnel were deployed to Tonga as part of a combined military force that supported the Tongan Security Forces in stabilising the security situation after riots in the city of Nuku’alofa on the 16th November 2006. On the 18th November, approximately 110 soldiers and 44 police officers from Australia and New Zealand arrived to help the local police to establish order. The New Zealand army was in charge of airport security and the police were to protect the High Commission. The Australian contingent provided assistance and relieved the exhausted Tongan police. 

Deployed: Fifty Army troops, RAAF C-130, B-707, logistic support and a contingent of Australian Federal Police. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 3 September 2012: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘S. PACIFIC 2006’ – 30 days/30 sorties

 
ASM with Clasp 'SOLOMON IS II'

ASM with Clasp ‘S. PACIFIC 2006’

AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE PROVISION OF SECURITY AND SUPPORT FOR THE AUSTRALIAN EMBASSY AND ITS STAFF IN IRAQ

Operation KRUGER 

Australia: 1 July 2008 – 9 August 2011 

Area of Operations: Iraq 

Operation Kruger was the Australian Defence Force’s contribution to the provision of dedicated security and support to the Australian Embassy and its staff operating in Iraq since the conclusion of combat operations in 2003 until mid-2011. 

Initially deployed under Operation Catalyst, Security Detachment Iraq (SECDET Iraq) transitioned to Operation Kruger on 1 July 2008 and remained in Baghdad after the ADF’s larger commitment to the rehabilitation of Iraq concluded in mid 2009. During the eight years of security operations, the SECDET adjusted its capability to reflect periods of increasing danger or improved security in post-2003 Iraq. 

SECDET was based on an Australian Army combined arms combat team consisting of an Infantry company group and a troop of Cavalry which operated the Australian Light Armoured (ASLAV) vehicles. Duties included physical security for the Embassy precinct in Baghdad and the close personal protection for key Australian government officials as well as protected transport for travel within Baghdad and other areas of Iraq. 

In association with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, SECDET gradually scaled back the provision of security and assisted in the transition to a contracted security solution in line with that provided to other Australian diplomatic missions. SECDET was withdrawn in August 2011 after the complete transfer of security responsibilities to the civilian contractor took place in late July 2011 when the operation came to an end. 

Deployed: Approximately 80 – 100 ADF personnel at any one time until scaled down in 2011. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 11 February 2009: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’ – 1 day/1 sortie ; Iraq Medal 

AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’

Iraq Medal

Iraq Medal

AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE’S CONTRIBUTION TO THE UNITED NATIONS ASSISTANCE MISSION FOR IRAQ (UNAMI)

Operation RIVERBANK 

Australia: 21 Jul 2008 – 25 Nov 2013 

Area of Operations: Iraq 

The United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) is a political mission established by the 2003 UN Security Council Resolution 1500 at the request of the Government of Iraq. It has been on the ground ever since, with its role greatly expanded in 2007 with the passage of Resolution 1770. 

UNAMI is mandated to advise and assist the Government and people of Iraq on a number of fronts. This includes advancing inclusive, political dialogue and national reconciliation, assisting in the electoral process and in the planning for a national census, facilitating regional dialogue between Iraq and its neighbours, and promoting the protection of human rights and judicial and legal reform. More about UNAMI’s mandate. The mandate also tasks UNAMI with working with government partners and civil society to coordinate the humanitarian and development efforts of the UN agencies, funds and programmes, under the leadership of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General for development and humanitarian support who is also the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Iraq. While UNAMI itself does not implement or deliver humanitarian and development programmes, it recognizes the critical importance of supporting the partnership and technical cooperation between the Government of Iraq and the 20 UN agencies, funds and programmes operating in the country. Further information on UNAMI can be found here: www.uniraq.org 

Deployed: Since July 2008, the ADF contributed two Army Officers to the UNAMI. The final rotation of the two officers completed their deployment and departed Iraq on 25 November 2013. The ADF deployed a total of 11 Australian military officers under Op Riverbank. The officers fulfilled roles as military advisers to the UNAMI. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 2 June 2009: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Active Service Medal (AASM) with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’ – 1 day/1 sortie ;  Iraq Medal 

AASM with Clasp ‘East Timor’

AASM with Clasp ‘IRAQ 2003’

Iraq Medal

Iraq Medal

The Australian Defence Force contribution to the United Nations and African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID)

Operation HEDGEROW 

Australia: 28 July 2008 – August 2009. 

AO: Darfur, Sudan. 

Background: Darfur is a region in western Sudan. It was an independent sultanate for several hundred years, incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. Because of the civil war in Darfur between Sudanese government forces and the indigenous population, the region has been in a state of humanitarian emergency since 2003. Particularly during the first two years of the conflict, tens if not hundreds of thousands of people were killed. Fighting continues between the Government and the other armed rebel groups, and 1.8 million people are estimated to be internally displaced. 

In 2006, the African Union deployed a peacekeeping mission to Sudan, which was replaced in 2008 by the unprecedented joint African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) – the largest peacekeeping mission in the world at the time. UNAMID was established on 31 July 2007 with the adoption of Security Council resolution 1769 and it’s mandate has been extended since then on several occasions. UNAMID has the protection of civilians as its core mandate, but is also tasked with contributing to security for humanitarian assistance, monitoring and verifying implementation of agreements, assisting an inclusive political process, contributing to the promotion of human rights and the rule of law, and monitoring and reporting on the situation along the borders with Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR). Further information can be found here. 

The ADF provided specialist support personnel in operations, logistics and movements planning and served as UN Headquarters staff. No ADF personnel were deployed from August 2009 due to delays in the issue of visas by the Government of Sudan. This operation formally ceased in July 2011. 

Deployed: The ADF maintained a commitment of up to 9 personnel to the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) under Operation Hedgerow. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 13 October 2008: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SUDAN’ ; UNAMID Medal 

ASM with Clasp 'EAST TIMOR'

ASM with Clasp ‘SUDAN’

UNAMID Medal

UNAMID Medal

United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS)

Operation ASLAN 

Australia: 23 September 2011 – ongoing 

AO: South Sudan, Uganda. 

The UN Security Council authorised establishment of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) on 24 March 2005, after the government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement to end a civil war that had lasted more than 20 years. UNMIS supported implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and assisted with protection of civilians. Following the six-year peace process, On 9 July 2011, the Republic of South Sudan became the newest country in the world. 

UNMIS transition to UNMISS: In adopting resolution 1996 (2011) on 8 July 2011, the Security Council determined that the situation faced by South Sudan continued to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region and established the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) to consolidate peace and security and to support and help establish conditions for nation-building and development in the new Republic of South Sudan to build a viable and secure future for its people. 

Following the crisis which broke out in South Sudan in December 2013, the Security Council, by its resolution 2155 (2014) of 27 May 2014, reinforced UNMISS and reprioritized its mandate towards the protection of civilians, human rights monitoring, and support for the delivery of humanitarian assistance and for the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement. Further information can be found here.  

Australia’s contribution to UNMIS under Op AZURE transitioned to the new United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) under Op ASLAN. The Operation formally started on 23 September 2011. 

Deployed: ADF contingent of up to 25 personnel engaged in key headquarters positions, aviation and logistics support roles, as well as military liaison officers. Up to 10 AFP officers assist ‘with development of police training and evaluation programs, and the provision of assistance in the mentoring and training of members of the South Sudan Police Service’. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 15 March 2012: Non-warlike Service. Uganda ‘Peacetime’. 

Awards: Australian Service Medal (ASM) with Clasp ‘SOUTH SUDAN’ ; UNMISS Medal 

ASM with Clasp 'EAST TIMOR'

ASM with Clasp ‘SOUTH SUDAN’

UNMISS Medal

UNMISS Medal

AUSTRALIAN CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS TO PROMOTE MARITIME SECURITY, STABILITY AND PROSPERITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST REGION

Operation MANITOU 

Australia: 30 June 2014 – ongoing 

AO: The sea (including adjacent ports and the area within a 10 kilometres radius of such ports) and superjacent airspace of: the Arabian Sea north of latitude 11°00’00 S and west of longitude 68°00’00 E; the Gulf of Aden; the Gulf of Oman; the Persian Gulf; the Red Sea and the Strait of Hormuz. 

Operation MANITOU is the current name for the Australia’s contribution to support international efforts to promote maritime security, stability and prosperity in the Middle East Region (MER). An enhanced security environment ensures Australia’s safe and open access to the region while fostering trade and commerce. Operation MANITOU is under command of Joint Task Force 633 (JTF633), which is the Australian National HQ in the Middle East Region. 

Deployed: The Royal Australian Navy routinely sends a Major Fleet Unit (MFU) to the MER for assignment to Combined Maritime Forces (CMF). CMF is composed of thirty one nations and has three principle task forces: 

Combined Task Force 150, which conducts counter-terrorism and maritime security operations;
Combined Task Force 151, which conducts counter piracy operations;
Combined Task Force 152, which conducts Arabian Gulf maritime security operations. 

The Australian Defence Organisation also provides a small staff that is permanently embedded within the Combined Maritime Forces Headquarters. This team, which presently comprises eight Royal Australian Navy personnel and one DSTG scientist, also undertakes the role of the Maritime Operations Support Group. The Royal Australian Navy also provides an International Liaison Officer for the UK Maritime Trade Operations Office and continues to deploy a major fleet unit (MFU) on a four-month rotation within the Middle East Region. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 21 December 2015: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Operational Service Medal (AOSM) – Greater Middle East Operation (GMEO) – 30 days. 

 
AOSMGMEO

AOSM – GMEO

AUSTRALIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE NATO LED RESOLUTE SUPPORT MISSION IN AFGHANISTAN
ANFDPDU

ANFDPDU

Operation HIGHROAD 

Australia: 1 July 2014 – ongoing 

AO: The land area, territorial waters, airspace and superjacent airspace of Afghanistan. 

The ADF contribution to the NATO led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan is known as Operation HIGHROAD and is fulfilled by personnel serving with the ADF’s Task Group Afghanistan. Australia committed to a stable and secure Afghanistan and continued support of the NATO-led train, advise and assist mission called Resolute Support which has replaced the previous NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission. 

Deployed: Around 250 ADF members from the Royal Australian Navy, the Australian Army, the Royal Australian Air Force and Defence civilians. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 22 October 2014: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Operational Service Medal (AOSM) – Greater Middle East Operation (GMEO) – 30 days.

 
AOSMGMEO

AOSM – GMEO

AUSTRALIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE IRAQ AND SYRIA CRISIS

Operation OKRA 

Australia: 1 July 2014 – ongoing 

AO: 1 July 2014 – 8 August 2014 within the area comprising the land territory, internal waters, territorial seas and superjacent airspace of Bahrain, Qatar, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates as the waters and superjacent airspace of the Persian Gulf; 9 August 2014 — 8 September 2015 within the area comprising the land territory, internal waters, territorial seas and superjacent airspace of Albania, Bahrain, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Montenegro, Poland, Qatar, Romania and the United Arab Emirates, and the waters and superjacent airspace of the Persian Gulf; and on and after 9 September 2015, the land area, territorial waters and superjacent airspace of Iraq and Syria. 

Nature of operation: Operation OKRA is the ADF’s contribution to the international effort to combat the Daesh (also known as ISIL) terrorist threat in Iraq and Syria: 9 August 2014 to 8 September 2015 – Iraq / on and after 9 September 2015 – Iraq and Syria. 

Deployed: About 780 ADF personnel have deployed to the Middle East in support of Operation OKRA. These personnel make up the Air Task Group (ATG), the Special Operations Task Group (SOTG) and Task Group Taji (TG Taji). Approximately 400 personnel have been assigned to the ATG, approximately 80 personnel are assigned to the SOTG and approximately 300 personnel are assigned to TG Taji. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 4 May 2016: Warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Operational Service Medal (AOSM) – Greater Middle East Operation (GMEO) – 30 days. 

 
AOSMGMEO

AOSM – GMEO

AUSTRALIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGNS AGAINST TERRORISM

Operation ACCORDION 

Australia: 1 July 2014 – ongoing 

AO: The area bounded by the land masses and superjacent airspaces of Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates 

Nature of operation: Supporting operations in Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates in relation to the ADF contribution to the International Coalition against Terrorism. 

Mission: Operation ACCORDION’s mission is to support the sustainment of Australian Defence Force (ADF) operations, enable contingency planning and enhance regional relationships in the Middle East Region (MER). 

Deployed: From Australia’s main logistics base in the MER, around 400 ADF personnel provide support to Australian operations throughout the region, including Operations OKRA, HIGHROAD and MANITOU. 

Operation ACCORDION’s supporting Units are: Force Communications Element (FCE); Force Support Element (FSE); Combat Support Unit (CSU); Air Component Command Element – Middle East Region (ACCE-MER); Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC) Detachment; Air Movement Task Unit (AMTU); Joint Movements Coordination Centre (JMCC); ADF Investigation Service (ADFIS) 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 4 May 2014: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Operational Service Medal (AOSM) – Greater Middle East Operation (GMEO) – 30 days.

 
AOSMGMEO

AOSM – GMEO

AUSTRALIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGNS AGAINST TERRORISM

Operation AUGURY 

Australia: 4 July 2014 – ongoing 

AO: Jordan and its superjacent airspace 

Nature of operation: Supporting ADF’s understanding of Islamist terrorist threats to Australia and the region in order to support national counter terrorism efforts to protect Australian national security interests. 

Veterans’ Entitlements Determination dated 5 March 2015: Non-warlike Service. 

Awards: Australian Operational Service Medal (AOSM) – Greater Middle East Operation (GMEO).

 
AOSMGMEO

AOSM – GMEO

OTHER OPERATIONS

Australian Department of Defence – Global Operations:

www.defence.gov.au/Operations/

Australian Federal Police – International Deployments:

www.afp.gov.au/what-we-do/our-work-overseas/international-deployment-group

 

SUMMARY

Missions / Operations contributed by Australian Defence and Police Forces: 
68 (to be revised) 

Countries: 
56 (to be revised) 

Total Military personnel:
approximately 48,000 personnel  (to be revised)

Total Killed in Action or Killed / Died on duty:

375 (to be revised), Including the Korean War and Military dogs. Exempted: Malayan Emergency, the Confrontation with Indonesia and the Vietnam War. 

 

This summary does not include details of:
the Rifle Company, RAAF Base Butterworth Malaysia, from 1958 to the present (120 personnel on 4 month tours of duty = approx 16,200 personnel).

Figures are an approximate appreciation of the mission, time served and personnel deployed.

SOURCES

Australian Federal Police :  www.afp.gov.au

Australian Honours :  www.pmc.gov.au/government/its-honour

Department of Defence :  www.defence.gov.au

Defence Honours & Awards :  www.defence.gov.au/medals/

Department of Veterans’ Affairs :  www.dva.gov.au

Federal Register of Legislation :  www.legislation.gov.au

North Atlantic Treaty Organization :  www.nato.int

Official website of the Governor-General :  www.gg.gov.au

United Nations :  www.un.org

PRIMARY RESEARCHERS

Mick Phelan

David Vinen

Dale Potter

Paul Copeland, OAM